The ministers decided to set up a high-level group to advance the debate and thereafter report back to the ECOFIN, preferably before the end of the Spanish presidency.
In the meantime, many countries have introduced national energy taxes. Most national schemes exempt large-scale energy users, and some systems (as the Dutch) have reduced rates over a certain threshold. In some cases (e.g. Sweden), the revenue from the tax is returned to the industry by reducing other taxes, mainly labour taxes.