Turkish deputy Prime Minister Bülent Arınç said on Monday he expected the largest anti-government protests the country has seen in decades to end soon, and suggested radical action might be taken to dispel the protestors.
“All the necessary actions against the lawlessness and illegal activities will be finalised by the weekend,” Arınç said.
But the strong resistance shown by protestors on Tuesday (11 June), when police entered Taksim Square for the first time in over a week, signals that the protests may continue longer than the government might expect (see background).
The central area of Istanbul has turned into a heavily barricaded carnival zone. Government plans to redevelop Gezi Park provoked what appeared first as a peaceful local sit-in protest, which has now evolved into a country-wide anti-government protest.
When riot police entered the square on early Tuesday (11 June) again, skirmishes turned into full blown clashes when the police abruptly went on to clear the square of all civilians in the evening, resulting in a degree of violence not seen for days.
Dozens of lawyers were also briefly detained after they protested at the Istanbul Palace of Justice, prompting thousands of their colleagues in Istanbul and Ankara to march in protest on Wednesday.
“There was intensive use of water cannon and tear gas. There were violent scenes in Ankara and Izmir too. Reports of widespread injuries once again underlined these police tactics are a major cause of concern,” said EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton about the police offensive at a European Parliament debate on Wednesday (12 June).
“What started peacefully, now turned into violence,” said the Parliament’s rapporteur on Turkey, Dutch MEP Ria Oomen-Ruijten (European People's Party), criticising the government's handling of the situation.
"If Prime Minister [Recep Tayyip] Erdoğan would have been more sensitive, If the language would have been more sensitive, and also the style of governing for those who didn't vote for him would have been more sensitive, than it wouldn't have happened,” she said.
'Not a psychological debate'
The Turkish prime minister faced criticism for taking sensitive political decisions without prior consultation and for his choice to fight back against the protests instead of searching for a peaceful compromise to prevent the crisis from escalating.
As a result, parts of the debate in Parliament focused on Erdoğan himself.
Greek MEP Niki Tzavela (Europe of Freedom and Democracy group) argued that because it was very difficult for Erdoğan to back down, the EU should put its confidence in President Abdullah Gül. “Despite putting his signature on the alcohol ban legislation, he is the only politician that has shown willingness for compromise and reconciliation,” she said.
Gül is a decades-old ally of Erdoğan and briefly served as a caretaker prime minister after the Justice and Development Party’s (AKP) victory in the elections of late 2002 until early 2003 when Erdoğan’s ban from politics was lifted. Last Monday, President Gül approved a controversial law restricting alcohol sales in Turkey, which was amongst the hasty government decisions which fuelled the protests.
Describing the Turkish prime minister’s determination in the crisis as a “dangerous threat”, Hannes Swoboda MEP, the parliamentary leader of the Socialists & Democrats group, said: “Yes, we want Turkey [in the EU] but this Turkey as represented today by Mr. Erdoğan cannot have a place in Europe. Mr. Erdoğan would have to change [himself], to change Turkey.”
Alexander Lambsdorff MEP, from the liberal ALDE group, disagreed. “We are not undergoing a psychological debate here. The question is not a man changing or not,” he said, adding that there must be a change of political culture in Turkey, to enable minorities to make their voice heard in politics. The country is not a “dictatorship of the majority”, he said.
Speeding up the accession process?
Some MEPs argued that opening the 23rd and 24th chapters on membership talks - which cover the issues of judiciary and fundamental rights, justice, freedom and security - would help the democratisation process in Turkey.
Turkey has repeatedly rejected EU criticism on issues such as freedom of expression by pointing out that the relevant chapters are not open for talks. In principle, the two chapters are the first to be opened in accession negotiations, but in Turkey’s case they are effectively blocked by Cyprus. As EurActiv reported in February, Ankara has expressed frustration with not being provided the required benchmarks for these chapters in years.
Swoboda argued in favor of opening the chapters, saying they would test the Turkish government's willingness to make progress in those areas.
Dutch MEP Emine Bozkurt, also an S&D member, agreed with Swoboda saying that although the “positive agenda” covered these issues, the recent developments in Turkey were “not so positive”.
The European Commission and Turkey launched a so-called “positive agenda” last year in order to continue with technical work on chapters which cannot be opened due to lack of consensus among the 27 EU member states.
Elmar Brok (European People's Party), a German MEP who is also chairman of the Parliament's foreign affairs committee, suggested that instead of opening new chapters, the EU should deal with Turkey in other ways, for example in a "Norway style" relationship.
Negotiating for EU membership since 2005, Turkey has not opened a single chapter over the past three years. Talks on the chapter covering regional policy were expected to launch later this month, but complications due to recent developments may add to Ankara’s disillusionment with the process.
Speaking in the European Parliament, EU Enlargement Commissioner Štefan Füle also expressed disappointment with the blockages on the EU side.
“How come the minister of justice of Turkey is repeatedly asking me again and again ‘Where are the screening reports in this field I can use for the reforms?’ How come he's asking me where are the benchmarks for opening and closing the chapters 23 and 24,” Füle said, calling for lifting of the deadlock.
Erdoğan meets activists
Last week, Füle visited Istanbul and attended a conference on EU affairs alongside Erdoğan, after meeting with the protesters in Gezi Park. He told the Parliament on Wednesday that the mostly young people he met there were not the “looters” that Erdoğan had referred to earlier.
On Wednesday evening, Erdoğan also met with a group of activists to discuss the issue of Gezi Park and the government suggested it could organise a referendum on the issue. But the protest’s leaders dismissed the meeting, questioning the legitimacy of the people representing the movement.
The European Parliament resolution on the protests, to be put to vote on Thursday, will most likely not be welcomed by Erdoğan.
British MEP Richard Howitt (S&D) addressed Erdoğan directly during his speech, saying: “Please don't dismiss our criticisms as some form of international conspiracy against you.”
The Turkish prime minister has been inclined to lay the blame on external powers during the past few weeks.