Under the draft EU legislation obtained by AFP, a country in the passport-free zone would be able to resume border patrols without asking for permission, but only for five days.
Beyond that, the country would have to ask the European Commission in Brussels for permission.
But Friedrich slammed the proposals, saying: "Security questions are a core competence of member states and we will not accept a transfer of this task to others or an undermining of this competence."
"We will not allow Brussels to dictate when we introduce controls. We control the borders if the security situation requires," Friedrich told the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung.
"It is a matter for individual member states to assess the dangers to public safety," he added.
Michele Cercone, spokesperson for EU Home Affairs Commissioner Cecilia Malmström, told EurActiv that he would not comment on opinions about draft reports, adding that the EU executive would table proposals on how to strengthen the Schengen area on Friday (16 September).
The Schengen agreement faced a storm of controversy during the Arab Spring amid fears that the upheaval across the Mediterranean would unleash a wave of illegal migrants across the continent (see 'Background').
Since then Denmark has added to the controversy by building new installations at its borders with Germany.