Commission Vice-President Viviane Reding has strongly criticised the “electioneering” rhetoric of French Interior Minister Manuel Valls, who has called for Roma from Bulgaria and Romania to sent back where they came from. EurActiv.fr reports.
Regional councillors were elected every six years, but as of their last election their mandate will end in 2014, when they will be replaced with new territorial councillors.
Rather than individual candidates and constituencies, voters choose between party lists. Each party puts forwards a list of their candidates with their favourites at the top but split up so that each candidate also represents a department in the region.
The party with the winning list, be it from the first round or second round, immediately gets one quarter of the available seats on the regional council. All lists are then considered and the remaining seats are split proportionally, according to how many votes each list received.
In the second round, a party whose list got at least 10% can negotiate to merge candidates with another list. (This could be good for both parties if by merging they can make their list the winner and gain the extra quarter of the seats).
"If I am not mistaken, elections are in the air in France. Whenever in this country [the government] doesn’t want to talk about important things like the budget or debt, they talk about the Roma," Reding said yesterday (25 September) on France Info radio station.
France will hold municipal elections on 22 and 30 March 2014 and the political class is already preparing for battle (see background).
Reding, the commissioner in charge of justice and fundamental rights, was reacting to a recurring debate on the situation of Roma in France. Controversy was revived again this week by Valls, a flamboyant Socialist politician, who denounced the inability of the minority to integrate into French society.
"Roma should not remain in France," he said. The minister added that Roma "should return to their country and integrate there", referring to Romania and Bulgaria, from where the majority of Roma in France originate.
But Reding retorted: "We have European rules that were signed by France, the rules on the free movement of EU citizens. And we are not speaking about Roma, but about individuals. Only upon a decision by a judge they can be repatriated, if they did something that goes against the laws of the State in question," she said.
A Commission spokesperson confirmed that the EU executive intends to make sure that France abides by its commitments.
“If these principles enshrined in the Treaties are not met, the Commission will use all means at its disposal to sanction such violations," spokesperson Olivier Bailly stated.
Reding also recalled that €50 billion had been made available by the EU to support the inclusion of Roma.
"There are fifty billion euros that are available and which are not used. I wonder why," said Reding, without specifying that this figure is for the whole of Europe, and more specifically their countries of origin. She added: "France has signed a national strategy for Roma integration. But money is not arriving where it should arrive, in the local authorities, with the mayors, where the problems happen."
This is not the first time that the French attitude towards the Roma has been criticised by the Commission. Already in 2010 under Nicolas Sarkozy's, Reding threatened France with sanctions, infuriating the French President.
Still, it is obvious that the statements by Valls, made a few months the municipal elections of March 2014, reflect the concerns of many mayors of French towns, who want to dismantle Roma camps. In recent weeks, several camps were dismantled in France, from Lille, Lyon or La Courneuve near Paris.
But the Roma rhetoric of Valls has also caused a political uproar. "Mr Valls’ statements reflect the policy of the ostrich and deny the extreme complexity of the situation of these populations in Europe," railed Jean-Luc Bennahmias, MEP and vice-president of Modem, the French liberal party.
Beyond the controversy over the integration of the Roma minority, the Commission pointed to a "voluntary or involuntary" confusion in the European rules made by politicians in France.
So far, transitional provisions allowed the EU countries to delay opening their labour markets to Bulgarian and Romanian nationals for a maximum period of seven years from the accession of these countries to the EU in 2008.
Many countries lifted those restrictions long ago, but France will keep them until the deadline laid out in the treaties, 1 January 2014.
However, some politicians such as Jean-François Copé, president of Sarkozy’s Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), agitate this date as a red cloth, equating it to the entry of Romania and Bulgaria into the Schengen area. The two issues however are completely unrelated. Schengen accession requires unanimity among the EU members, and several countries such as Germany and the Netherlands oppose the inclusion of Bulgaria and Romania.
"The fact that these two countries are not part of the Schengen area does not prevent the free movement of Romanian and Bulgarians within the Union," Bailly said.
Bulgarian and Romanian nationals may travel freely to the rest of the EU but they need to show a passport or a national identity card when entering the Schengen space.
The spokesperson of the French government Najat Belkacem-Vallaud defended the policy on Roma conducted by Valls "with firmness and humanity”, adding that their return to their countries of origin “is part of the range of solutions".
Harlem Désir, leader of the French Socialist Party, said he did not believe "theories according to which some people might not be integrated”. “We always say that concerning immigrant populations’, he said, adding: "Let’s not put the issue of Roma at the heart of the municipal election campaign, it would be a strategic mistake". The French League of Human Rights protested against the statements made by Valls, who according to the NGO” ought to know, more than anyone, that the use of [anti-Roma] stereotypes do not spring from a discourse of truth, but of a desire to stigmatize a population whose presence is obviously not desirable in France. “Such words in the mouth of a minister of the Republic are not acceptable,” the organisation stated.
Eric Ciotti, member of parliament from Sarkozy’s Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), accused Reding of "incompetence". "I want to denounce this totally demagogic and improper position of the Vice-President of the European Commission, according to whom if the Roma issue arises in our country today, it is only because there is the election in the air in France. "These statements, which show the total ignorance of the Commissioner of the Roma problem in our country, highlighting her incompetence in the matter, " Ciotti stated.
- 6 Oct. 2013: Day of European mobilisation for the dignity of the travelling people, organised by European Antiracist Movement and the French Union of Gypsy Associations.
- 1 Jan. 2014: lifting of labour restrictions still in place in France and eight other European countries vis-à-vis Bulgarian and Romanian nationals
- 22 and 30 March 2014: French municipal elections
- 22-25 May 2014: European elections