On a visit to Germany, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdo?an urged Chancellor Angela Merkel to throw her country’s full weight behind his country's bid to join the EU, but there was no sign the host had been swayed from her sceptical stance on Turkish membership.
In a visit to Berlin overshadowed by EU concerns about his crackdown on the judiciary and police whom he accuses of forming part of a "parallel state", Erdo?an complained that German support was "not currently adequate".
"We want to see more. I would like to remind you that the population of Turks in Germany alone is greater than the population of many European countries," he told the German Council on Foreign Relations before meeting Merkel.
Erdo?an has purged thousands of police and sought tighter control of the courts since a corruption inquiry burst into the open in December, a scandal he has cast as an attempted "judicial coup" meant to undermine him ahead of elections.
In combination with his crackdown on last year's protests in Istanbul's Taksim Square, Erdo?an's response has reinforced the view in Berlin and Brussels that Turkey's fragile democracy may not yet be ready for EU membership.
"I personally said that we are in a negotiation process that has certain outcome and no fixed time frame," Merkel told a news conference after their talks.
"It is no secret and nothing has changed in my view that I am sceptical about full membership for Turkey," Merkel said, adding that this should not prevent the talks from going ahead.
Erdo?an did appear to have won a concession from Merkel on the unblocking of two crucial chapters in accession talks: Chapter 23 that deals with judiciary and fundamental rights and 24 on justice, freedom and security.
"I am in favour of unblocking 23 and 24," said Merkel.
The European Commissioner in charge of enlargement, Stefan Fuele, has argued that opening up these chapters would be an effective way of tackling Turkey's poor human rights record.
Erdo?an capped his day in Berlin with a spirited campaign rally in front of a capacity crowd of 4,000 cheering, flag-waving Turkish immigrants while another 3,000 watched on video screens set up outside. German TV broadcast his speech.
Erdo?an ridiculed talk about corruption in Turkey by saying that his government was responsible for strong economic growth, 10,000 new roads, better schools and healthcare.
"Can you get that in a country with corruption?" he asked to cheers from the crowd. He added that there was no longer any torture at police stations. "Turkey is secure. Turkey is in strong hands. I want you to be proud of your country."
Who needs whom?
Ankara began negotiations to join the EU in 2005, 18 years after applying. But a series of political obstacles, notably over the divided island of Cyprus, and resistance to Turkish membership in Germany and France, have slowed progress.
European Commission President José Manuel Barroso told Erdo?an last week that respect for the rule of law and an independent judiciary were pre-conditions for EU membership. Erdo?an argues he is only taking action against an attempt to subvert the rule of law.
A bill from Erdo?an's ruling AK Party, which is on hold in parliament, would give the government greater control over the appointment of judges and prosecutors. The party argues it is needed to curb the influence of Fethullah Gülen, a U.S.-based cleric and his former ally.
Aware of the EU's concerns, Erdo?an – once considered a model of democracy for the Muslim world – said the corruption probe unfairly targeted his followers and was orchestrated by people who "wanted to change Turkey's direction".
As well as Berlin, Erdo?an has visited Brussels and Paris in recent weeks in a bid to build momentum after the start of a new round of EU membership talks in November, the first in more than three years. Talks had been delayed by EU states over last summer's crackdown on anti-government demonstrations.
"Many developments like the matters of Syria and Egypt have enabled us all to see that it is the EU which needs Turkey and not Turkey which needs the EU," said Erdo?an, who last week won cautious support for the EU bid from France's François Hollande.
His speech to a diplomatic audience in Berlin elicited only polite applause and a few hundred members of Germany's Turkish minority of three million people protested at his visit by the Brandenburg Gate. Banners read: "Democracy now, everywhere!"
"He's trying to turn us into Iran," said Ajsel Cam, a 45-year-old cook who works at a Berlin hospital. She added that Erdo?an's ally-turned-rival Gülen was "exactly the same".
"We want true democracy," said Cam Temuer, a pensioner aged 70. "Everything in Turkey is falling apart."
A NATO member with hopes of EU membership, Turkey is locked in a long power struggle between the AK Party, which has its roots in political Islam, and conservative, nationalist secularists, whose bastions remain the military and judiciary.
Known as 'Kemalists', the Turkish military are considered guardians of Kemal Ataturk's secular legacy. After World War I, Ataturk sought to transform the ruins of the Ottoman empire into a democratic, secular nation state. In past decades, the military has toppled several governments.
In 2008 the ruling AKP curtailed the army's power as part of what was presented as efforts to prepare the country for EU accession. In response, the military launched an unsuccessful bid to ban AKP.
A wave of arrests of suspected members of 'Ergenekon', a mysterious organisation close to the secularist military establishment, brought new tension to Turkey. In the recent past, the EU has taken the side of AKP against those accused of "being members of the Ergenekon criminal organisation".
A sit-in against plans to demolish a park in Istanbul sparked the fiercest anti-AKP in recent years in Turkey, and the heavy-handed reaction by the authorities raised concerns in the West.