Protesters clashed with police in cities across Turkey yesterday (11 March) after the death of a 15-year-old boy who was hit in the head by a tear-gas canister during anti-government demonstrations last summer. Turks will vote in local elections on 30 March.
Police unleashed water cannon and tear gas on thousands of demonstrators, another pre-election headache for Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdo?an as he battles a corruption scandal that has become one of the biggest challenges of his decade in power.
Istanbul and Ankara have both seen protests in recent weeks against what demonstrators regard as Erdogan's authoritarian reaction to the graft affair, which has included new laws tightening Internet controls and handing government greater influence over the appointment of judges and prosecutors.
Berkin Elvan, then 14, got caught up in street battles in Istanbul between police and protesters on June 16 while going to buy bread for his family. He slipped into a coma and became a rallying point for government opponents, who held regular vigils at the hospital where he lay in intensive care.
On Tuesday evening, police fired water cannon and tear gas in Ankara's central Kizilay square to scatter several thousand protesters who chanted: "Government of Erdogan, government of corruption, resign resign". The police pursued the protesters into side streets where small clashes continued.
There was similar police intervention against thousands of protesters on both the European and Asian sides of Istanbul, among dozens of places across Turkey where posts on social media had called for protests on Tuesday evening.
In the Mediterranean city of Mersin, two women were injured when struck by a water cannon vehicle, one of them suffering a head wound, the Do?an news agency said. Four police were also reported injured in the clashes there.
Police detained 20 people as they skirmished with protesters trying to march to the offices of Erdogan's AK Party in the Black Sea city of Samsun, Do?an reported.
In the southern city of Adana, protesters threw stones aimed fireworks at police lines as water cannon vehicles advanced against them, spraying water. Large numbers also protested in the western cities of Izmir and Eskisehir in the most extensive protests since last summer's unrest.
Residents in some Istanbul districts banged pots and pans with spoons from the windows of their apartment blocks, reviving a form of protest popular during the summer.
Crowds chanted "murderer Erdo?an" and "the murderer state will be brought to account" as mourners carried Elvan's coffin, wrapped in red cloth and strewn with red carnations, to a "cemevi", an Alevi place of worship, in central Istanbul.
Alevis are a religious minority in mainly Sunni Muslim Turkey who espouse a liberal version of Islam and have often been at odds with Erdo?an's Islamist-rooted government.
Among the throng of up to 1,000 people, some waved plain red flags, while shopkeepers in the Okmeydani district pulled down their shutters as a mark of respect. Elvan's mother, flanked by a group of women, stood crying at an open window.
"We have come here because of the murderer police. They will be held to account. Berkin Elvan's blood will not be left on the ground," said Ahmet Ekinci, one of those in the crowd.
Elvan was the sixth person to die in violence during nationwide protests in late May and June over Erdogan's plans to bulldoze an Istanbul park. The protests turned into one of the biggest shows of public defiance of Erdogan's 11-year rule.
President Abdullah Gül, the first senior figure to publicly comment on Elvan's death, sent his condolences to the family.
In the Aegean city of Izmir, school children and university students staged sit-ins. The Confederation of Revolutionary Trade Unions (DISK) said it would join Elvan's funeral in Istanbul on Wednesday.
"Their children steal billions, our children are killed going to get bread," DISK said in a statement, referring to the corruption scandal which erupted on 17 December with the arrest of the sons of three cabinet ministers [more].
Erdo?an has cast the corruption investigation as a plot to unseat him by U.S.-based Islamic cleric Fethullah Gülen, a former ally whose followers say they number in the millions and who wields covert influence in the police and judiciary.
Gülen said in a message of condolence to Elvan's family, published in the Zaman newspaper that is close to him, that Turkey was experiencing difficult days and that the "mind of the state has become overwhelmed by anger and hatred".
"This atmosphere of hatred is undermining society's need for love and peace and efforts to understand one another," he said. "Little 15-year old Berkin Elvan is the latest victim of this atmosphere."
Leaked voice recordings, many of them purportedly of Erdogan, have appeared on YouTube over the past two weeks, part of what the prime minister sees as a campaign to sully his centre-right AK Party ahead of the local elections on 30 March and a presidential race five months later.
Erdo?an has condemned the illegal tapping by Gülen's followers of what should have been encrypted telephone conversations and has described some of the leaked recordings as "fabricated montage". On Tuesday, he rounded on the cleric again and suggested there could be more leaks to come.
"I ask you, for God's sake, you listen to people's private phone calls, you use them for slander and blackmail, indeed you go further and spy on and record people in their bedrooms," he told an election rally in the southeastern city of Bitlis.
Gülen has repeatedly denied unleashing the corruption investigation.
The European Parliament passed today (12 March) a resolution which expresses deep concern at recent allegations of high-level corruption in Turkey.
Meps stressed that constitutional reform must remain the top priority for its modernisation and democratisation.
The resolution regrets the removal of the prosecutors and police officers in charge of the original high-level corruption investigations, stressing that this goes against the fundamental principle of an independent judiciary. An impartial and independent judiciary is vital to a truly democratic state, MEPs say.
"Turkey has embarked on reform for the benefit of its own citizens. Recent developments in the area of fundamental freedoms, independence of the judiciary, freedom of expression and others are however a cause of grave concern for us. We now need a serious, constructive dialogue with Turkey on these subjects and Turkey needs to show true commitment to its European aspirations and to the values upon which the EU is founded," said rapporteur on Turkey Ria Oomen-Ruijten (EPP, NL).
MEPs point out that a draft law on the High Council of Judges and Prosecutors and a draft internet law, which are seen as restricting fundamental freedoms, take Turkey away from meeting the Copenhagen criteria for EU accession. They ask the Council to make efforts to open accession negotiating chapters 23 and 24, on judiciary and fundamental rights and on justice and home affairs.
A NATO member with hopes of EU membership, Turkey is locked in a long power struggle between the AK Party, which has its roots in political Islam, and conservative, nationalist secularists, whose bastions remain the military and judiciary.
Known as 'Kemalists', the Turkish military are considered guardians of Kemal Atatürk's secular legacy. After World War I, Atatürk sought to transform the ruins of the Ottoman empire into a democratic,
secular nation state. In past decades, the military has toppled several governments.
In 2008 the ruling AKP curtailed the army's power as part of what was presented as efforts to prepare the country for EU accession. In response, the military launched an unsuccessful bid to ban the AKP.
A wave of arrests of suspected members of 'Ergenekon', a mysterious organisation close to the secularist military establishment, brought new tension to Turkey. In the recent past, the EU has taken the side of AKP against those accused of "being members of the Ergenekon criminal organisation".
A sit-in against plans to demolish a park in Istanbul sparked the fiercest anti-AKP demonstration in recent years in Turkey, and the heavy-handed reaction by the authorities raised concerns in the West.
30 March: Local elections to be held in Turkey
2 Aug.: Presidential elections will be held in Turkey, directly for the first time