The European Union set out requirements yesterday (22 November) for Ukraine to win visa-free travel to the bloc, but said any further progress would depend on democratic reforms and improvements in human rights.
During an annual summit in Brussels, the EU and Ukraine agreed on a plan that will require Kiev to improve document security, border management and other policies, while giving no timetable for when visa requirements may be lifted.
Diplomats recently told EURACTIV that Ukraine's visa liberalisation process would be "different" from the one recently agreed with Western Balkan countries. The visa requirement could effectively be lifted but only in the long term, the officials said.
Yesterday's agreement is part of an EU effort to forge closer ties with Ukraine in a bid to encourage reforms and boost energy cooperation. But it falls short of Kiev's hopes for a trade deal, underscoring EU concerns over human rights.
"We acknowledge Ukraine's European aspiration and we welcome its European choice," European Council President Herman Van Rompuy told a news conference after meeting Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovich.
But he added the EU was concerned about recent local elections in Ukraine and urged the government to make progress on constitutional reforms.
"We also discussed and emphasised the importance of respect for freedom of the media, freedom of assembly and freedom of association, and the protection of human rights defenders," he said.
The Ukrainian opposition and the United States have criticised Yanukovich over a local election held on 31 October, the first since he won power in February. The vote was seen as an early test of his stated commitment to democracy.
Until now, the EU has offered the former Soviet state an association agreement which would include a free trade deal, but it has not promised membership or proposed EU-candidate status.
EU leaders said the two sides made progress on Monday in talks on trade and a deal could be finalised by the middle of next year.
But Yanukovich said ahead of the summit that trade deals were not enough and Ukraine wanted to be given clear hopes of joining the EU.
"It goes without saying that we think that this [association] agreement must reflect Ukraine's EU accession prospects," he said in an interview with three foreign news agencies.
(EURACTIV with Reuters.)
Ukraine's President Viktor Yanukovich, who is labelled by the Western press as pro-Russian, made his first foreign trip to Brussels in March. He declared that the key priority for his country is European integration and received strong support from EU leaders.
Yanukovich has also moved to strengthen ties with Moscow. Last April, a deal was struck to cut the price of gas supplies to Ukraine by 30% in exchange for allowing the Russian navy to continue using the Crimean peninsula as a base.
On 1 October, a landmark ruling by Ukraine's Constitutional Court buried changes to Ukrainian law, made during the Orange Revolution in December 2004, that restrict the president's power.
Yanukovich now has the right to choose his own government and rule in a presidential system similar to that of Russia, rather than in a parliamentary one.
A few days ago, the European Parliament postponed for a second time a vote on a resolution, first initiated by the centre-right European People's Party group, that is seen as hostile to the authorities in Kiev.
- 23 Nov.: European Parliament to debate Ukraine resolution, Strasbourg.
- Commission:14th EU-Ukraine Summit joint press statement
- The New York Times: Ukraine Leader Pushes Triangular Partnership
- Financial Times:Yanukovich gives Europe gas pledge
- Kyiv Post:EU agrees visa liberalisation plan with Ukraine
- EURACTIV Czech Republic:Ukrajinský vlak s cílovou stanicí bezvízový režim se rozjíždí velmi pomalu
- EURACTIV Germany:EU fordert Ukraine zu politischen Reformen auf