Environment Commissioner Janez Potocnik has scolded European countries for their inaction on EU laws to combat air pollution, which causes an estimated 420,000 premature deaths yearly in the Union.
“We are still far from our objective to achieve levels of air quality that do not give rise to significant negative impacts on human health and the environment,” Potočnik told a clean air conference organised on Tuesday (8 January) by campaigner group the European Environmental Bureau (EEB).
“We have to recognise that some of the EU air quality standards that were established in the late nineties are not being respected.
“This has led to a situation where the majority of member states are infringing EU law on air quality. As a consequence, the health of many people is suffering, and costs to the health suppliers and the economy are rising”, he told the conference.
The European Environment Agency (EEA), an EU body, contends that shifting to electric vehicles and other anti-pollution measures could cut the number of premature deaths caused by air pollution to 230,000 by 2020.
Officials also called on the EU to crack down on diesel fuel.
“We will have to address the issue of the diesel car,” Potočnik said. “Compliance is crucially dependent on reducing real world emissions from diesel cars.”
“Diesel vehicles are more efficient, but they emit a higher level of nitrogen dioxide than regular vehicles,” Jacqueline McGlade, executive director of the EEA, told the conference.
McGlade says inaction on air pollution has strong economic consequences, estimating a price tag of €630 billion for health care and €169 billion in lost productivity.
Commission figures show that the EU can achieve economic gains of 75% for 20% of the overall cost.
But EU officials say that for the EU to push through further measures, the population needs to be convinced that combating air pollution is economically viable.
“If we can win the case there, we are winning the [overall] case”, Potočnik said.
Lack of ambition
Christer Ågren, the director of the Swedish environmental organisation AirClim, slammed EU states for their “lack of ambition” in curbing air pollution.
He said the amount of noxious airborne particles such as SO2, NH3 and PM2.5 could be curbed “without being extremely drastic”.
Ågren criticised governments for their lack of support for high level policy measures and failure to implement existing legislation.
A total of 12 EU countries failed to meet the 2010 National Emissions Ceilings for Nitrous Oxide (NOx) emissions with three not meeting standards for VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) and/or NH3, he said.
“We should not wait until 2050 to achieve targets that were set 20-25 years ago. Climate policy has to be strengthened”, Ågren said.
For Potočnik inadequate air policy governance was to blame for the relatively slow progress on air pollution in the EU, which he said had fallen behind the United States. The US has the most stringent air quality legislation in the world.
“In many member states, responsibility for air quality lies with regional or local authorities. However many sources of air pollution are outside their zone of competence”, he said.
“This has forced local authorities to apply more expensive measures to the sources of pollution that they can control.
“So we need to discuss with Member States ways and means of improving this so that our common objectives for better air quality are actually delivered to more people for instance through improving the link between national and local or regional air quality management programmes,” he said.
EU politicians also criticised industry for trying to block greener legislation.
“There is too much lobbying from industry usually against new [greenhouse gas] limits”, said Finnish Green MEP Satu Hassi.
We need the voice of scientists”, she added. “We need ways to scientifically prove the link between health and the environment”.
“We are locked into an old [regulatory] system. We need to get a stronger voice from progressive industry. We need to fight against lobbyists”, Potočnik said.
Climate change and pollution is reducing the world’s gross domestic product by 1.6% a year or some €917 billion, says the Climate Vulnerability Monitor, a report from the Madrid-based humanitarian group DARA and the Climate Vulnerable Forum.
"Trans-boundary pollution is a problem", said the mayor of the Ten Boer municipality in the Netherlands, André Van de Nadort. "Source based measures have to come from Brussels, which is not a popular idea at the moment."
Jeremy Wates, EEB secretary-general, said “Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture or waste. The EU must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution.”
"There is a lack of ambition also at the European level, not just in pollution but in other environmental matters. The economic crisis has been taken as a reason not to pursue it more", Kathleen Van Brempt, a Belgian MEP with the Socialists and Democrats, said at the EEB conference.
"It is about quality of life", said Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, a Dutch Liberal MEP and vice-chair of the Parliamentary Committee on Environment, Health and Food Safety. "Air quality is about daily life, let's make that clear. The arguments have been framed incorrectly", he said, adding "we need greener cities." He also called for the creation of a European environmental inspection agency.
Jos Dings, the director of Transport & Environment, a green transport campaign group, called the governance of vehicle type approval a "disgrace". He said the EU needed "real governance" on climate issues.
The EEB conference marked the launch of the 2013 European Year of Air.
Air pollution has different particulate matter (PM) components – smoke, dirt and dust form coarse particles known as PM10, and metals and toxic exhaust from smelting, vehicle exhaust, power plants and refuse burning forming fine particles called PM2.5.
The 2008 air quality directive aimed at streamlining and tightening EU legislation dealing with pollution and air standards. It is due to be revised by 2013, and Environment Commissioner Janez Poto?nik seeks to consolidate many different EU regulations on air quality and pollution into a single law.
The 2008 rules set targets for reducing concentrations of fine particles that health officials say are dangerous pollutants for human health and that contribute to respiratory, sinus and other problems.
Under the directive member states must cut exposure to fine particulate matter by an average of 20% by 2020, based on 2010 levels.
Many of the policies grow out of a 2005 strategy on air pollution, which sought to cut sulpher dioxide (SO2) emissions by 82%, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 60%, volatile organic compounds by 51%, ammonia by 27%, and primary fine particulates by 59% compared to the levels of 2000.
Health advocates says the cost of cutting emissions through better smokestack scrubbers, cleaner-burning vehicles and a shift to renewable fuels would be more than offset by savings in treating complications of bad air.
- Second half 2013: The European Commission to publish legislative proposals to improve air quality.
EU official documents
- Eurobarometer: Attitudes of Europeans Towards Air Quality
- European Commission: Staff Working Paper on EU Air Quality Policy
- European Commission: Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution
- European Environment Agency: Air quality in Europe (2012)
- World Health Organization: Air quality and health
- US Government: Clean Air Act