In spite of efforts to promote equal opportunities in Europe, many children and adults with disabilities still do not exercise their full rights to perform sport and physical activities at their desired levels.
Several sports have been specifically created for persons with a disability and thus have no equivalent in able-bodied sports.
Both people with physical and intellectual disabilities can take part in international, Olympic Games-type competitions, including the Paralympic Games, Special Olympics and Visa Paralympic World Cup.
In the framework of the 2004 'European Year of Education through Sport' (EYES), the Commission financed 200-odd projects, 37 of which were aimed at using sport as a tool to better integrate socially disadvantaged groups, including people with disabilities.
As a follow-up to EYES, the first European expert meeting on sport and disabilities (October 2005) called on member states to exchange best practices and identify potential fields for action at national level for using sport as an employment and inclusion tool for people with disabilities (see a summary of member states' data published in March 2006).
The Commission's White Paper on Sport, adopted in July 2007, proposes a number of actions to be implemented and supported by the EU executive in three areas, one of which being the societal role of sport. The action plan annexed to the white paper states that "the Commission will take into account the importance of sport for disabled people and will support member-state actions in this field" (see the EU disability strategy).
The UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, adopted in March 2007, protects disabled people from all kinds of discrimination and covers civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. It obliges signatory parties to not just adapt laws and regulations to this principle, but also to ensure that real practices change in order to better integrate disabled people into society.
The European Communities have signed the UN Convention, but refrain from signing an additional Protocol establishing a complaints procedure, which some member states consider too far-reaching (see EurActiv 02/04/07). The optional protocol allows individuals and groups to petition a UN committee of experts over alleged violations of their rights once all national recourse procedures have been exhausted.
Citizens with disabilities currently comprise around 10% of the total European population, whereas a recent Eurobarometer survey on discrimination shows that anti-discrimination legislation is still not sufficiently implemented in the EU.
Sport for persons with disabilities can be considered both in terms of purely sports-related aspects and in terms of Community policy. According to the Commission, sport can help increase awareness of the range of problems faced by people with disabilities, achieve an inclusive barrier-free society, be a factor for social integration and help pave the way to employment.
The European Paralympic Committee (EPC) has called on the Commission to do everything possible to guarantee equal opportunities for all EU citizens to do sport and benefit from the added value that physical activity brings. Action is urged, in particular, on:
- Promoting non-discrimination and equal opprtunities in sport;
- providing greater assistance to those European sports organisations that are most in need of support, and;
- mainstreaming sport in EU policies related to the areas of education, youth, culture, social affairs and employment as a tool and instrument for social advancement, development and improvement.
In September 2008, the Commission and the EPC signed a 'Declaration on Supporting the European Paralympic Committee'. The Declaration follows a two-year grant received by the Committee from the EU to develop Paralympic sport in Europe.
A study on the current situation and prospects for physical education (PE) in the EU concludes that many countries have legislation in place and opportunities for disabled pupils in physical education seem to be increasing, but there are regional variations. For example, in central and eastern Europe the level of integration is lower than the rest of the EU.
According to the author of the study, Professor Ken Hardman, all EU member states have laws on disabilities, but no regulations on the obligation to provide physical education for disabled children, who are simply 'excused' from PE lessons, either for medical reasons or lack of appropriate teacher knowledge, infrastructure or specialised curricula.
Hardman also points to "chronic underfunding in provision of PE for pupils with disabilities, leading to overall time-reductions in their physical education in schools across Europe."
Opening the European Year of Equal Opportunities for All, the Employment and Social Affairs Commissioner Vladimír Špidla said that equal treatment and a life free of discrimination are "two of the basic principles underpinning the Union".
Brigitte Degen from the Commission's DG Employment explained that even though "sport as such is not a special subject for the year 2007, several member states have indicated that they will be using sport as a means to spread the message on diversity and promote equality."
The European Parliament, in its report on people with disabilities, stresses the importance of sport as a factor for improving quality of life, self-esteem, independence and social integration. The report calls on member states to make sports facilities more accessible, remove obstacles to the participation of young people with disabilities in sports activities, provide incentives for their greater involvement in sport and promote sports events and competitions for people with disabilities, such as the Paralympic Games.
The Committee of the Regions (CoR) has called on the EU to establish a benchmark for local and regional authorities in promoting equal opportunities in sport. It also calls on local and regional authorities to monitor the recruitment of people with disabilities as sports administrators and coaching staff, and "to accord equal value to the less vigorous and non-competitive sports which are more accessible to people with disabilities."
The European Paralympic Committee (EPC) is concerned that children with disabilities do not enjoy the same opportunities to do sport as their able-bodied peers, particularly in physical education classes in schools and, consequently, do not pick up the healthy habit of doing sport at an early age.
"There is chronic underfunding in the provision of physical education for pupils with disabilities, leading to overall time reductions in their physical education (PE) in schools across Europe," said Professor Ken Hardman from the UK's University of Worcester, as he presented the findings of his study on EU physical education in February 2007. He also highlighted differences between Eastern and Western European countries with regard to disabled children's access to physical education in school.
According to Hardman, all member states have laws on disabilities, but not regulations on the obligation to provide physical education for disabled children, who are simply 'excused' from PE lessons either for medical reasons or lack of appropriate teacher knowledge, infrastructure or specialised curricula. "Current school PE curricula are totally inadequate for the disabled," he said, highlighting the importance of providing teachers with quality training so that they can understand the physical exercise experience of disabled pupils in mainstream PE lessons.
"Handicapped people's access to physical education in schools must be improved as physically disabled people often go to normal schools but are obliged to skip the physical education lessons, due to lack of appropriate infrastructure and because teachers lack special knowledge," argued MEP Ljudmila Novak (Slovenia, EPP-ED).
"Sports for disabled people represent an important social aspect of their lives, as a social activity that develops their abilities, which can then lead to the individual's maximal participation in social life," said Yannis Vardakastanis, the President of European Disability Forum (EDF).
Professor Ken Hardman added that physical education needs to be better adapted to the disabled individual's needs and that competition and winning should be given lesser importance.
However, 11-time Paralympic gold medalist, Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson, argued that sport ministries should understand that disabled people want to compete as well.
In this regard, she highlighted the need for more Paralympic funding. Asked what the EU can do to improve disabled access to sport, the gold medalist said that "it is about national governments' sport ministries understanding that disabled people should be competing. It is about access to sport. It is about people doing sport to be healthier. Physical activity can be used in so many ways to target government agendas – it just needs to move up the priority list. The EU can influence national governments by sending out the right messages. Governments need to spend more money on accessibility."
Her wishes were echoed by EU Commissioner Jan Figel who highlighted the importance of events such the Paralympics with regard to sport helping disabled people to become better integrated into society.
MEP Christopher Heaton-Harris also stressed that both supporting talented athletes in their ambition to compete and offering opportunities "at the grass-roots level in the local community and through schools" were equally important.
Asked why Visa sponsors Paralympics, Colin Grannell, executive vice president of Visa Europe, said it does so for the same reasons it sponsors the Olympic Games. "It is about elite sport," he said. "Of course, the question at the beginning was to know whether we would get a good return for our business investment by doing it, because the media attention for the Paralympics is a lot less than for the Olympics. However, we decided to do this over the long term and I think that in the future we'll see the Paralympics become much bigger."
Grannell also explained that there is a change operating in sponsorship. Before, companies were happy to see their brands displayed in events, but now, "competition in business means that your brand and your business need to stand out and mean something to the general public. One has to see these large corporates do something real in terms of supporting society. Brand exposure alone is not enough."
However, he believes it is very complicated for corporations to get involved in sport sponsorship, because in order to do so, "you need to understand the hierarchy of sports politics, the sports governing bodies, the issues they manage and the committees and bodies that generate the athletes and the sport".
According to a Commission-supported thematic network entitled "Educational and Social Integration of Persons with a Handicap through Adapted Physical Activity (THENAPA)" (1999-2001), the European education system is unprepared for meeting the needs of people with disabilities in an integrated setting. The network recommended promoting inclusive education not only to people with disabilities but society as a whole, in order to adequately prepare it to live with people with disabilities.
Regarding legislation, the network proposed that Adapted Physical Activity (APA) be covered in the basic education act, as most countries have laws for special education, but only in some of them does educational law include physical education. Other recommendations considered concerned adequate education and training of professionals and co-operation between non-disabled and disabled sports.
- Oct. 2005: The Commission held a first expert meeting on 'Equal opportunities through and in sport' (see summary of member states' data).
- 2007: European Year of Equal Opportunities for All.
- 23 Jan. 2007: The European Disability Forum launches the campaign 1million4disability.eu, which aims to collect one million signatures for disabled citizens' right to equality.
- 11-12 June 2007: German Presidency conference on empowering persons with disabilities.
- 3 Dec. 2007: International Day of Disabled Persons.
- Feb. 2008: Creation of a new international organisation entitled Adapted Physical Activity International Development (APAID).
- 6-17 Sept. 2008: 2008 Paralympics took place in Beijing.
- 8 Sept. 2008: The Commission and the European Paralympic Committee (EPC) signed a Beijing Declaration in support of Paralympic sport.
- Disability sport events.
- Commission press release:Sport: Commission to reinforce co-operation with European Paralympic Committee to foster social inclusion of people with disabilities(8 September 2008) [FR] [FR] [DE]
- European Paralympic Committee press release:London 2012 announces big boost for Paralympic sport(8 October 2007)
- European Paralympic Committee
- International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
- Special Olympics
- European Disability Forum
- International Paralympic Committee (IPC) press release:Augmenting Inclusion of People with Disabilities - Agreement between International Paralympic Committee and European Disability Forum on Future Co-operation(27 January 2003)
- International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation (IWAS)
- United Nations:Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
- Optional Protocol
- UK:English Federation of Disability Sport
- USA:Disabled sports USA
- DE:Info-Center für Behindertensport in Deutschland
- UK:Inclusive Fitness Initiative (IFI)
Business & Industry
NGOs and Think-Tanks
- International platform on sport and development news:Creation of the Adapted Physical Activity International Development (APAID)(20 March 2008)
- Adapted Physical Activity International Development (APAID)
- The Federation of Disability Sports Organisations (FDSO)
- Commission:White Paper on Sport(11 July 2007) [FR] [FR] [DE]
- Commission staff working document accompanying the White Paper on Sport:[Background and context](11 July 2007)
- Commission staff working document accompanying the White Paper on Sport:Action plan "Pierre de Coubertin"(11 July 2007)
- Commission staff working document accompanying the White Paper on Sport:Impact assessment(11 July 2007) [summary]
- Committee of the Regions (CoR):Opinion on Equal opportunities and sport(11 October 2007)
- Commission:Proposal for a Council Decision on the signing, on behalf of the European Community, of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol(27 February 2007) [FR] [FR] [DE]
- European Parliament:Current situation and prospects for Physical Education in the European Union(February 2007)
- Commission:Eurobarometer Report on Discrimination(23 January 2007)
- European Parliament:Report on the situation of people with disabilities in the enlarged European Union: the European Action Plan 2006-2007(13 October 2006) [FR] [FR] [DE]
- Commission:Expert meeting on equal opportunities through and in sport - summary of data received from member states(March 2006)
- European Union Disability Strategy
- European Parliament:Resolution on development and sport(1 December 2005) [FR] [FR] [DE]
- Commission:Situation of disabled people in the enlarged European Union: the European Action Plan 2006-2007(28 November 2005) [Annex]
- Eurobarometer:Attitudes of Europeans to disability(May 2001) [FR] [FR] [DE]
- Thematic Network "Educational and Social Integration of Persons with a Handicap through Adapted Physical Activity " [recommendations]
- Sporturban - Social inclusion of the disbled trhough sport in the city of l'Aquila
- European Year of Education through Sport (EYES)