With Europe facing a “silent crisis” of biodiversity loss, MEPs are considering ways to strengthen protections for habitats and species but are divided over how to compel EU national governments to live up to their commitments.
A draft resolution debated yesterday (23 January) in the European Parliament’s environment committee says past efforts at biodiversity protection and restoring habitats have largely failed and urges the EU executive to pursue more forceful policies.
“We should be doing a bit more than producing roadmaps and we should be very clear and strong otherwise we will fail again and again,” said Bas Eickhout, a Green MEP from the Netherlands and member of the panel.
The draft calls for restoring 30% of damaged ecosystems by 2020 – doubling recent recommendations made by the European Commission. It also urges strengthening conservation provisions in the EU’s agricultural policy and to create an EU coast guard to improve enforcement of marine laws.
Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, the new vice chairman of the environment committee, said European leaders have focused on the eurozone troubles while more threatening challenges loom ahead.
“I am working on a silent crisis, that’s the extinction of species and habitats,” said Gerbrandy (Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, the Netherlands). “It’s a crisis behind the scenes that to be honest is probably more threatening that the euro crisis that we are facing.”
Commission’s biodiversity target
The European Commission in May map out proposals on protecting biodiversity, including restoring at least 15% of damaged or degraded habitats and underscoring the need for sustainable fisheries, forestry and agriculture.
The 2020 biodiversity strategy reflects the current Commission’s drive for tandem policies of sustainable growth and resource efficiency that are reflected in other policies under consideration this year, including energy, transport, agriculture and the LIFE programme.
The Council of national environment ministers, in a statement on 19 December, “stressed the need to integrate biodiversity concerns into all EU and national sectoral policies, in order to reverse the continuing trends of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation.”
But MEPs called for a more muscular commitment to habitat restoration and urged national governments to following through on designating protected sites under the European-wide Natura 2000 policy on habitat and species protection.
Gerbrandy called the Council statement on biodiversity “so weak that I can hardly believe it.”
“No one was sticking out his neck to discuss biodiversity,” he said, criticising the lack of progress on creating an EU-wide network of protected habitats under the Natura 2000 programme.
But some environment committee members said the draft resolution needs changes. Some members of the Greens want stronger protections for forests, and restoration of marine habitats rather than just pointing to the need to protect fisheries.
MEP Julie Girling (European Conservatives and Reformists, UK) expressed concerns about using the Common Agricultural Policy's direct payments to farmers to encourage greener cultivation, saying that should be left in the so-called second pillar funding that supports rural development and conservation.
Protecting habitats “will not be done by creating more central authority and rules, it has to be done by national governments and people wanting to do it,” Girling said.
The EU’s Common Agricultural Policy, the main farm support programme that consumes some 40% of the EU budget, marks its 50th year this year. A farm and conservation group yesterday called for more sustainable farming practices that protect natural habitats.
“After 50 years of support for a failing system, European and national policy-makers need to reconsider,” said Samuel Féret, coordinator of the Agricultural and Rural Convention group.
“The time has come for European decision-makers to put their support behind ecological and multifunctional agricultural practices that are proven to maintain jobs on farm holdings produce the most sustainable yields, protect and enhance water bodies, soil fertility and biodiversity”, Féret said in a statement.
Some MEPs expressed concern that the EU’s raft of environmental laws and biodiversity targets were not being enforced.
“I’ve said before that if a European citizen obeyed the laws the way member states obey the laws, they would have been in jail a long time ago,” said Gerben-Jan Gerbrady, vice chairman of the Parliament’s environment committee. “It’s really incredible the way member states are ignoring EU law.”
“I’m not ready to to say that we need to use more regulations instead of directives - both have them have legal instruments that have very positive sides … but it’s something we should focus strongly on in the environmental action programme,” he said. Regulations take effect immediately, while directives must be adopted into national law.
Europe’s main institutions - the Parliament, Council and Commission - all seek to improve the stewardship of the land and seas, including efforts to restore natural habitats such as wetlands and forests, that harbour natural life.
There is disagreement on how aggressive those efforts should be and how much money should be spent in times of austerity. The Commission’s Biodiversity Strategy 2020 calls for restoration of 15% of habitats, while some MEPs say the proposals are too lame and want a 30% target.
National environmental representatives are on record as calling for stronger habit protections and reducing the EU’s environmental footprint, but enforcement of existing laws or targets is often weak.
The Common Agricultural Policy reflects another area of discord over how to sustain farming while protecting resources and habitats. The Commission has proposed revamping the CAP to make it greener - such as setting aside up to 7% of farmland as buffers and pastureland as a sort of environmental buffer, and paying farmers to pursue greener cultivation practices.
- 27 Jan.: Deadline for amendments to the draft Parliament resolution on biodiversity
- 29 Feb.: Environment committee vote on the biodiversity resolution
- April: Plenary vote on the resolution
- European Commission:Natura 2000 Network
- Council conclusions EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020(21 June 2011)
- United Nations Environment Programme:Biodiversity
NGOs and Think-Tanks
- Agricultural and Rural Convention 2020:Website
- European Environmental Bureau (EEB):EU Ministers lumber forward on biodiversity, climate talks ongoing(21 June 2011)
- EURACTIV Hungary:Mégis kihalhatnak az állatok Európában?