The European Commission on Wednesday (18 December) unveiled a draft law to tackle air pollution, which every year is linked to 400,000 premature deaths in Europe and costs of tens of billions of euros.
The proposals include new limits on emissions from power plants and industry, as well as measures to make member states comply with existing rules on limiting pollutants associated with asthma, cardiovascular disease and cancer.
So far, many member states are failing to enforce existing EU air quality standards, even though the rules are less rigorous than those set by the World Health Organization.
"Air pollution is still an invisible killer and it prevents many people from living a fully active life," Environment Commissioner Janez Poto?nik said in a statement.
Environmental campaigners say the European Commission, the EU executive, is not being bold enough in tackling a problem linked to more untimely deaths than road accidents, as well as countless sick days and impaired quality of life.
The Commission has said the eventual aim is to raise standards to WHO levels, but it has to balance costs to industry with benefits in fragile economic times.
It puts the direct costs to society, including damage to crops and buildings, from air pollution at around €23 billion ($31.6 billion) per year.
The health benefits alone of the proposals will save society €40 billion per year, 12 times the cost of pollution abatement, which is expected to reach €3.4 billion per year in 2030, the Commission said.
The Commission calculates that adopting its proposed measures would reduce the annual death toll from pollution-related disease by 58,000 by 2030, as well as protecting fragile ecosystems and boosting the clean-technology industry.
New law plus enforcement
The measures include revised legal limits on how much each member state can emit of a list of major pollutants, as well as a new law to cut pollution from medium-sized combustion installations, such as power plants.
Alan Andrews, a Brussels-based lawyer at environmental law firm Client Earth, welcomed the inclusion of medium-sized plants, which previously escaped requirements limited to larger installations.
He also said the inclusion of planet-warming methane gas and fine dust, known as PM 2.5 (particulate matter), associated with cardiovascular disease and lung cancer was progress.
Other pollutants from traffic, industry and agriculture already covered by EU law are larger particulates, nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds, which contribute to ground ozone formation.
The proposals follow a review of existing law, which has cut concentrations of some harmful pollutants. EU air quality is relatively good compared with Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Africa, WHO data shows.
But increased traffic volumes and a rise in wood burning by households as a cheap alternative to gas mean some types of harmful pollution are receding more slowly.
Levels of particulate matter, especially the more penetrating and therefore more dangerous PM 2.5, as well as the larger PM 10 are one of the biggest health risks.
But the tighter proposed limits on PM will pose problems for EU governments, many of which have struggled to meet the existing caps. Up to a third of Europeans are exposed to dangerous levels of PM pollution, official figures show.
According to the Commission and the European Environment Agency, which provides guidance to EU policymakers, 400,000 people in Europe die prematurely each year due to diseases linked to air pollution.
The proposal will now head to the European Parliament and Council for debate. The Italian government has expressed an interest in making the proposals a priority when it takes over the six-month rotating presidency of the Council in the second half of next year.
This means that the proposals could become law before the end of 2014, if parliamentarians and European ministers reach an agreement quickly, Commission Environment Spokesperson Joe Hennon told EurActiv.
BusinessEurope Director General Markus Beyrer said: “Over recent decades, European industry has significantly reduced its emissions and is committed continuing these efforts. However, we are concerned that the proposed air quality package will force industry to go beyond what is economically and technically feasible. BusinessEurope will be working with the co-legislators to balance health and environmental objectives better with the competitive needs of our industries.”
Copa-Cogeca Secretary-General Pekka Pesonen said in a statement: “I am glad that the EU Commission has revised slightly its previous unrealistic targets foreseen under the National Emission Ceiling directive (NEC) but these proposals will still hit the livestock sector hard. This comes at a time when EU farm incomes are already down 1.3% this year and farmers need to meet many challenges”.
"Measures aiming to reduce green house gas emissions and air pollutant emissions from agriculture could result in a drop in EU production, threatening food security at a time when world food demand is set to rise 60% by 2050. This must be taken into account."
The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), which represents 140 conservation groups, said in a statement that it regretted the "overall lack of ambition of the package". Louise Duprez, EEB senior policy officer, said: “This is a first step in the right direction, but it is a paradox that the entire year has been marked by repeated calls from scientists for urgent action, yet the Commission’s response is ‘yes, but not until 2030’. This delay will result in large numbers of completely avoidable premature deaths in Europe.”
Eva Corral, air quality officer at Transport & Environment (T&E), an environmental campaign group, said: "Today's flawed strategy is a missed opportunity for the Commission to clean up the air we breathe. The package does not include new measures to further reduce emissions from transport, a key source of air pollution in urban areas. More importantly, it resigns itself to finally reaching targets set more than five years ago. We urge EU policymakers to propose new measures to seriously control emissions from vehicles, machinery and ships. Millions of children, sick people and older citizens whose health is hampered by air pollution deserve much better."
Jean-Paul Beens, head of public affairs and industry relations at Yara, a Norwegian fertiliser company, said: “With equal concerns about EU air quality, Yara supports and welcomes the ratification of the amended Gothenburg protocol as an effective set of goals and measures to improve global air quality as a whole and in Europe in particular."
Air pollution has different particulate matter (PM) components – smoke, dirt and dust form coarse particles known as PM10 and metals and toxic exhaust from smelting, vehicle exhaust, power plants and refuse burning forming fine particles called PM2.5.
The 2008 Air Quality Directive aimed at streamlining and tightening EU legislation dealing with pollution and air standards. It is now under review.
The directive obliges member states must cut exposure to fine particulate matter by an average of 20% by 2020, based on 2010 levels.
Many of the policies grow out of a 2005 strategy on air pollution, which sought to cut sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 82%, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 60%, volatile organic compounds by 51%, ammonia (NH3) by 27%, and primary fine particulates by 59% compared to the levels of 2000.
Health advocates say the cost of cutting emissions through better smokestack scrubbers, cleaner-burning vehicles and a shift to renewable fuels would be more than offset by savings in treating complications of bad air.
- Second half 2014: Italian presidency of the European Council may seek to reach agreement with European ministers on Air Quality Package
- 2030: Year by which the objectives of the Air Quality Package are intended to be met
- Environment: The Clean Air Policy Package