Europe’s grassland butterfly population has dropped “dramatically” over the past 20 years, a stark warning that many of Europe’s species may be heading for extinction, says a new report by the European Environment Agency.
At least 10 of the species declined across the European Union due to intensive agriculture and the failure to manage grassland ecosystems, said the report, 'The European Grassland Butterfly Indicator'.
This could have dramatic effects on Europe’s biodiversity as butterflies may be key to maintaining the health of grassland ecosystems.
Hans Bruyninckx, the EEA’s executive director, said: “This dramatic decline in grassland butterflies should ring alarm bells – in general Europe’s grassland habitats are shrinking. If we fail to maintain these habitats we could lose many of these species forever. We must recognise the importance of butterflies and other insects – the pollination they carry out is essential for both natural ecosystems and agriculture.”
After birds, butterflies are the EU’s most reliable indicator for the state of its biodiversity due to the detailed long-term data available from across the European Union, the report’s lead author, Chris van Swaay, told EURACTIV.
Van Swaay, from Dutch Butterfly Conservation, said: “The Grassland Butterfly Indicator shows a clear decline in biodiversity … Butterflies is one of the few group for which we have data for a large part of the continent and since at least 1990.”
Butterflies examined in the report include Polyommatus Icarus (known as the Common Blue), which has declined significantly, ?Euphydryas aurinia (the Marsh Fritillary), a grassland specialist species which also declined, and Anthocharis cardamines (the Orangetip), seemingly stable since 1990.
Separately, the EU has stepped up efforts to restrict insecticides in a bid to stave off the decline in bee populations.
The report flags the over-intensification of agriculture in Western Europe as major cause of the decline.
A statement accompanying the report blames agricultural intensification for creating vast sterile, uniform grasslands which do not provide the habitat needed for many indigenous species to survive. Butterflies, and other species, are also vulnerable to the over-use of chemical pesticides, a major component of intensive farming.
The authors also expressed concerns about the abandonment of traditional farmland in southern and eastern Europe as a factor in the degradation of the butterfly's habitat.
In southern and eastern Europe in particular, socio-economic concerns have led farmers to quit their family’s land in search of work in cities or abroad.
“Young farmers leave their villages and go to the big cities and the land is left as it and turns into scrubland and forest,” van Swaay said.
For van Swaay, the EU's Common Agricultural Policy could provide a two-fold solution, supporting local farmers in Europe’s poorer regions and protecting biodiversity.
“The Common Agricultural Policy is going into a new seven-year period in which there is more attention for nature but still we think it’s not enough … The EU is doing some things but we could do more, support more local farms.”
Protecting local farms could also play a key role in preserving the EU’s heritage, van Swaay says. “Small farms in the grasslands are full of butterflies and also flowers. It is an important part of our cultural heritage. What makes Europe special is these semi-natural areas … The forests are bigger in Russia and the mountains are higher in Asia."
Recently, there have also been stark warnings about the potential impacts on biodiversity if the EU’s bee population continues to decline due to agricultural intensification, in particular the widespread use of pesticides.
Joe Hennon, spokesman for European Environment Commissioner Janez Poto?nik, told EURACTIV in emailed comments: “The steep decline in grassland butterfly numbers is a clear indicator of similar trends for other insect species, and of overall ecosystem health decline in the EU. The findings of this report are in line with the Commission's assessment of the conservation status of species protected under the Habitats Directive, which indicates that species depending on agricultural land have a worse conservation status than others".
“In addition ... the decline puts at risk one of the most fundamental ecosystem services – pollination. One third of all global agriculture relies on insect pollination, and it is essential for the reproduction of many wild plants that underpin a wider network of animal and plant life to address the multiple threats they face.”
Hennon added: "The revised Common Agricultural Policy for the period 2014-2020 provides a new opportunity for Member States to develop coherent packages of support specifically farmers managing such Natura 2000 sites. New elements that will provide specific new opportunities to protect butterflies include a widened definition of grassland eligible for direct payments, which should allow Member States to include more areas of pasture land which are important habitats for butterflies, but which have been excluded from direct payments under the present CAP."
"Natura 2000 can play an important role [in protecting species], but other nature reserves can as well", said Chris van Swaay, from Dutch Butterfly Conservation.
Luc Bas, Brussels director for the International Union for Conservation of Nature, said: "The EEA study highlights an alarming trend for butterflies and complements the assessment by the European Red List of Butterflies conducted by IUCN. The European Red List of Butterflies, funded by the European Commission, has revealed that 9% of all European butterflies are threatened with extinction at the pan-European level (7% at the EU 27 level). Overall, more than 30% of the 435 species assessed have a declining population.
"The alarming results show that Europe is not on course to halt the decline of biodiversity. As we are approaching the half way point of 2020 – when the biodiversity targets set by the EU expire, efforts need to be intensified."
The European Union has a number of programmes to protect its biodiversity and a number of EU directives legislate for the protection of species, including agriculture, energy and transport.
The EU has agreed a new EU Biodiversity Strategy in tandem with the EU’s long-term budget, the multi-annual financial framework, which runs from 2014 to 2020.
The EU also has a network of protected areas, known as Natura 2000, which stems from the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive.
The EU Biodiversity Strategy recognises the poor conservation status of grasslands. Grasslands should be properly managed, the report states, both within Natura 2000 protected areas and on High Nature Value (HNV) farmland. A new system of payments under the Common Agricultural Policy could help support better management, the report says.
- 2014-2020: Implementation of the EU's new Biodiversity Strategy and Common Agricultural Policy
EU official documents
- EEA: The European Grassland Butterfly Indicator: 1990?-2011
- European Commission: Nature & Biodiversity
- European Commission: EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 – towards implementation
- Dutch Butterfly Conservation: Website
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