Leaders on both sides of the Atlantic have given the green light to start negotiations for a free trade agreement establishing the largest economic alliance in the world, which already accounts for some €455bn in trade and millions of jobs.
“We are committed to making this relationship an even stronger driver of our prosperity,” US President Barack Obama, European Council President Herman Van Rompuy, and European Commission President José Manuel Barroso said in a joint statement.
“A future deal among the two most important economic powers will be a game changer. Together we will form the largest trade zone in the world,” added Barroso during a press conference in Brussels, presenting the recommendations of the high-level working group on growth and jobs, established at the EU-US summit in November 2011 to scope out the ambitious trade deal.
Brussels and Washington will initiate internal procedures to launch negotiations in the first half of the year, said Barroso.
The latest estimates show that a comprehensive trade agreement between the EU and the US could increase GDP by 0.5% in the EU and 0.4% in the US within 15 years. This would equate to €86 billion of added annual income to the EU economy. Eliminating tariffs only would boost transatlantic trade by more than $120 billion within five years.
The US and the EU already have the largest bilateral relationship in the world, worth nearly €2 billion per day.
Businesses in Europe and the United States hailed the launch of the negotiations.
“The agreement presents an unmatchable opportunity to boost competitiveness, jobs and growth that are needed in our economies,” Jürgen Thumann, the president of the association BusinessEurope, and US Chamber of Commerce President Thomas Donohue said in a joint statement.
A similar chorus has spread across the political arena.
"Breaking down the remaining trade barriers and securing a comprehensive deal will require hard work and bold decisions on both sides. But I am determined to use my chairmanship of the G8 to help achieve this and to help European and American businesses succeed in the global race," said UK Prime Minister David Cameron.
European Parliament President Martin Schulz conceded that such a deal could unleash the potential of the transatlantic economy, but that more importantly it could also contribute to the development of global standards through regulatory integration.
The deadlocked Doha multilateral trade talks have pushed countries to seek bilateral and regional agreements.
Leaders believe that the EU-US trade deal could establish new globally relevant rules, and open the door for strengthened global governance.
First building block, road blocks ahead
The decision to open negotiations is seen as the first building block of a transatlantic single market. There is, however, a sense that the two sides will need to be creative, flexible and open-minded if they want to achieve an ambitious trade agreement, according to one of the recommendations in the High-Level Working group report.
When the European Parliament gave the EU executive its approval to start negotiations in October, it underlined the difficulties inherent in such an agreement and pointed out that the divergent interests between the EU and the US over agriculture, maritime transport, GMOs and cloned animals, for example, might hamper rapid progress towards a deal.
Speaking at the press conference in Brussels, EU trade chief Karel de Gucht said he hoped the two sides could reach a deal within two years, before the end of the mandate of the current Barroso Commission. This would also coincide with the US mid-term elections.
But trade analysts see such a scenario as over-optimistic.
Differences over investment protection, agriculture, public procurement and intellectual property, particularly regarding pharmaceuticals, have marred trade negotiations with Canada since talks began in May 2009.
An ambitious transatlantic single market?
“An ambitious agreement would eliminate close to all tariffs, foster a good number of mutual recognition agreements and more generally converge (but not harmonize) regulations in many sectors, reduce direct market access restrictions in most service sectors, improve rules on subsidies and state-owned enterprises, and establish a framework for progressive improvements of the agreement,” said Frederik Erixon, from the European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE).
There is not a complete single market in the EU and many sectors in the US are fragmented by regulations by US states. Others take aim for regulatory harmonisation of a kind that simply is impossible, added Erixon.
The EU-US trade agreement could also face serious political obstacles.
“Ambition sometimes bites the nails of success. Or to put it differently: too grand ambitions will erode the chances of reaching an agreement. Negotiations should aim for an ambitious agreement, and it is important that the EU and the US move out of the depressing format of negotiations in the Transatlantic Economic Council, which clearly suffered from being too narrow and lacking context,” Erixon said.
Negotiators are well aware of the obstacles and seem to have anticipated a way out. The recommendations spell out the need for innovative approaches.
“The agreement should be designed to evolve over time,” read the report.
Even if a deal is surely reachable, the question will be how ambitious and comprehensive such an agreement would be, considering the challenge in persuading independent authorities in the US and EU member states to sign up to the necessary convergence of their regulatory regimes.
“For the sake of jobs and growth, it’s time to forge a bold, new trade pact with Europe,” added Thomas J. Donohue, President and CEO of the US Chamber. “The Chamber applauds the US and European officials who worked tirelessly to clear a path forward for an ambitious and comprehensive agreement. The stars are finally aligned, and we urge the US and EU governments to move forward swiftly to negotiate a high-standard agreement that will foster economic growth and job creation for all our citizens.”
“Reaching agreement is important for producers on both sides of the Atlantic. A comprehensive deal will produce large benefits for producers and consumers,” said Ivan Hodac, Secretary General of the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA).
“We are hopefully witnessing the first step towards a historic deal between the European Union and the United States,” said Arnaldo Abruzzini, Secretary General of EUROCHAMBRES.
“A Trade and Investment Partnership with the U.S. would be the crown jewel in the EU’s trade agenda,” added Abruzzini.
"The economic potential of this deal is simply too big to lose. Just by eliminating current tariffs the combined EU-US GDP could add 135 billion euro in five years. That also means thousands of news jobs. Of course we should be more ambitious and focus on regulatory convergence for automotives, chemicals and pharmaceutics, allowing for more trade,” said Dutch Liberal Member of European Parliament Marietje Schaake (Netherlands, D66)
Schaake also pointed to the strategic importance of a more integrated transatlantic market facing up to new economic powers like China: "Together, the EU and the US could help set the new standards for world trade."
Hans Stråberg, new European Co-Chair of the TransAtlantic Business Dialogue (TABD) program said: “It is with great satisfaction that I have taken note of President Obama's endorsement in his state-of-the union address of strengthening economic relations across the Atlantic. The American and European business communities have over the last years stressed the importance not only for the economies of the US and the EU of a transatlantic trade and investment agreement. As EU leaders the week before rightly pointed out when also endorsing a start of negotiations in the near future, an ambitious and comprehensive deal between the two biggest trading partners in the world will also benefit the global economy.”
Director of transatlantic relations at the Bertelsmann Foundation Tyson Baker said:
"Consultation with Congress will be crucial in the coming months. Currently, knowledge on Capitol Hill of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership is much lower than knowledge of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). But initial reactions from Congress match the White House’s robust enthusiasm. Key figures on the Senate Finance Committee have endorsed an agreement with Europe, stating that '[a] comprehensive US-EU FTA, negotiated and implemented with the highest standards, would have a multiplier effect and would be certain to generate much needed economic growth on both sides of the Atlantic.'
With the trans-Atlantic economic partnership and the concurrent TPP, President Obama has outlined a vision for trade policy that could be part of his legacy. The Bush administration pursued a two-track approach to trade, focusing simultaneously on bilateral agreements with smaller economies (e.g., Peru, Colombia, Central America) and the completion of multilateral talks in the Doha Round. The Obama administration in contrast has now articulated a “going big” bilateral strategy, focusing on game-changer agreements with the world’s most significant economic blocs—the EU and the Asia-Pacific— that are tinged with geopolitical undertones and meant to re-ignite global trade liberalisation and reset the multilateral economic order."
Today, American and European Standards Organisations agreed to collaborate on aligning standards to facilitate trade between EU and USA.
Ileana Martinez, chair of American National Standards Institute's Regional Standing Committee for Europe, Middle East and Africa, said:
"Standards are a vital tool for innovation and collaborating internationally and between regions on their development will help to ensure the best available climate for business, and thus ensure smooth access to global markets."
Two-way goods trade between the United States and the EU now totals more than $600 billion, or €447 billion, annually. Services trade, including sales by majority-owned U.S. or EU companies in each other's market, adds about $1.2 billion.
American companies have invested around €1.4 trillion in production, distribution and other operations in the EU, far more than in China or anywhere else in the world. EU companies have invested about €1.2 trillion in the US.
Since most tariffs between the US and the EU are already low, reducing regulatory barriers to trade in areas like agriculture and chemicals is expected to be the most challenging aspect of the talks.
- European Commission: EU and US to launch negotiations for a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, European Commission
- European Commission: Statement from US President Barack Obama, European Council President Herman Van Rompuy and European Commission President José Manuel Barroso
- European Commission: Statement by President Barroso on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
- The New York Times: Obama pledges trade pact talks with E.U. Washington Post: Senate trade leaders question E.U. pact
- Huffington Post: Dan Hamilton, Create a New Transatlantic Partnership that is more than free trade
- EURACTIV Poland: UE i USA rozpoczn? negocjacje umowy o wolnym handlu
EURACTIV Slovakia: Rokovania o vo?nom obchode s USA za?nú do konca júna
- ECIPE: Transatlantic trade -- Frederik Erixon, Freeing up transatlantic trade Center for Transatlantic relations: Background on the project of a transatlantic trade deal