A technology developed with the University of Delaware has sold power from electric vehicles to the power grid for the first time, the power company NRG Energy Inc said on Friday (26 April).
In a joint statement, the university and NRG said that they began work on the so-called eV2g program in September 2011 to provide a two-way interface between electric vehicles and the power grid, enabling vehicle-owners to sell electricity back to the grid while they are charging their cars.
NRG said the project became an official participant in the PJM frequency regulation market on February 27. The system, which is still in development, is not yet commercially-available.
PJM operates the power grid for 60 million people in 13 US Mid-Atlantic and Midwest states and the District of Columbia.
Frequency regulation is used to balance supply and demand on the grid second-by-second.
"This demonstrates that (electric vehicles) can provide both mobility and stationary power while helping make the grid more resilient and ultimately generating revenue for electric vehicle owners," said NRG Executive Vice President Denise Wilson, who leads the company's emerging businesses.
As well as downloading electricity, electric vehicles can store energy, allowing power grid operators like PJM to balance the power provided by variable renewable resources, such as wind and solar.
A key aspect of the technology, NRG said, is that it can aggregate power from multiple electric vehicles to create one larger power resource.
BMW, a unit of German car maker Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, provided the electric vehicles. Milbank Manufacturing provided the charging stations.
NRG said the technology is expected to be used initially by managers of commercial electric vehicle fleets, providing revenue while their vehicles are parked, with individual electric vehicle owners to eventually follow.
Passenger cars alone are responsible for around 12% of total EU emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas.
In 2007, the EU proposed legislation setting emission performance standards for new cars, which was adopted in 2009 by the European Parliament and the EU Council of Ministers. Today's EU targets ensure that average emissions from new passenger cars do not exceed 130 grams of CO2 per km (g/km) by 2015.
A White Paper on Transport, presented by the Commission in February 2011, flagged measures to raise the €1.8 trillion which the EU says is needed for infrastructure investment in the next 20 years.
Proposals published earlier this year have set a further targets of 95 grams for new passenger cars by 2020, and 147 g/km for vans. By the end of 2014, new targets could be announced for 2025 and 2030.
- 2013: Review of 2020 automobile CO2 target expected to wrap up
- 31 Dec. 2014: EU expected to complete review of targets for 2020 and 2025
- 1 Jan. 2015: 130 grams of CO2 per km target to be enforced across Europe
- Dec. 2015: Deadline for common standards for hydrogen CNG and LNG refuelling stations in new clean transport package
- 2016: US to introduce 35 mpg standard for all new passenger cars
- 2020: Deadline for new alternative fuel refuelling stations in new clean transport package
- 2020: 95 grams of CO2 per km target expected to enter force across Europe
- 2025: European Commission could impose another milestone on the road to decarbonisation by 2050
- 2025: US to introduce 54.5 mpg standard for all new passenger cars
- 2030: European Commission could impose another milestone on the road to decarbonisation by 2050
- Press release: EU launches clean fuel strategy (24 Jan. 2013) [FR] [DE]
- Memo: Clean power for transport – Frequently asked questions (24 Jan. 2013)
- European Commission: Electric vehicles page
- European Commission: Transport White Paper
- European Commission: Communication on transport technology research and innovation
- European Commission: Research and Innovation for Europe's Future Mobility
- European Commission: European Green Cars Initiative
EU Actors positions
- ACEA: Automobile manufacturers call for improved conditions for electrically-charged vehicles (7 Jan. 2013)
- Transport & Environment: Clean vehicles portal
- Battery Energy Storage Solutions for Electro-Mobility: White Paper on battery energy storage solutions for electro-mobility