Blindness is often caused by corneal diseases. The established treatment is a corneal transplant, but in many cases this is not possible and donor corneas are often hard to come by.
In the future, an artificial cornea - the transparent layer in front of the eye - could make up for this deficiency and save the vision of those affected.
Thousands of people have lost their eyesight due to harm to the cornea, such as trauma, damaged stem cells or diseases.
Cornea transplants are the therapy of choice for many of patients. Yet there are complications: there is a shortage of donor material and some patients cannot tolerate the implants.
In Germany – where around 7,000 patients are waiting to be treated – the Potsdam-based Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer (IAP) research is attempting to improve the situation by developing an artificial cornea.
"We are in the process of developing two different types of artificial corneas. One of them can be used as an alternative to a donor cornea in cases where the patient would not tolerate a donor cornea, let alone the issue of donor material shortage," said project manager Joachim Storsberg.
New implant technologies
Clinical trials are about to start in Cologne and those involved rate the chances of success very highly.
At Heidelberg University Eye Clinic, new ways of bringing treatment to patients are being combined with new implant technologies to head of the rising problem of poor sight.
A new mobile cataract unit allows surgeons to provide cover for many more patients, increasing the number of operations by 15% within the past year.
Gerd Auffarth, deputy director of the Heidelberg clinic, believes the unit will be able to take on increasing numbers of cataract patients in the future.
Germany readies for ageing eyes
Heidelberg is developing improved implants that enable the eye pressure to remain regular, and assisting normal sight. These implanted stents can be can be injected through corneal incisions of less that 0.5 millimetres.
More than 2,000 patients are being followed in controlled studies and the device appears as safe as alternative cataract surgery.
“The ophthalmology department in Heidelberg is doing what it can to catch up and prepare itself for the already increasing number of ageing patients with age-related eye diseases,” said Auffarth.