Robert Steenland Archives

  • EU country briefing: Italy

    EU Elections 2019 13-03-2019

    Italy was a founding member of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1952, which paved the way for the EU. It joined the Schengen in 1997 and eurozone in 1999, despite not meeting the euro convergence criteria, and its economic performance has remained a source of concern.

  • EU country briefing: Sweden

    EU Elections 2019 11-03-2019

    Sweden joined the EU only in 1995 and a year later also became part of the Schengen area. However, it is one of the six EU countries that are not part of NATO and it also refuses to join the eurozone, following a referendum in 2003, in which people voted against adopting the common currency. This has resulted in a de-facto opt-out.

  • EU country briefing: Portugal

    EU Elections 2019 08-03-2019

    Portugal joined the EU, together with its neighbour Spain, in 1986, and has been part of the Schengen (1995) and eurozone (1999) areas since their creation.

  • EU country briefing: Spain

    EU Elections 2019 01-03-2019

    Spain joined the EU in 1986, and has since then subscribed to each EU treaty, including ratifying in referendum of the Constitutional Treaty in 2005. With a population of circa 46,5 million people, it is the 4th largest of the EU, representing 10.4% of all EU citizens (after Brexit).

  • EU country briefing: Austria

    EU Elections 2019 27-02-2019

    Austria joined the EU only in 1995, having traditionally been a neutral country, but has been part of the eurozone (1999) and Schengen (1997) areas since their inception.