At least 20 members of the European Union will next week sign up to a new defence pact, heavily promoted by France and Germany, to fund and develop joint military hardware in a show of unity following Britain’s decision to quit the bloc.
After years of spending cutbacks in Europe and a heavy reliance on the United States through the NATO alliance, France and Germany hope the accord, to be signed on 13 November in Brussels, will tie nations into tighter defence collaboration covering troops and weapons.
— Nicolas Suran (@surannicolas) November 6, 2017
The Permanent Structured Cooperation, or PESCO, could be the biggest leap in EU defence policy in decades and may go some way to matching the bloc’s economic and trade prowess with a more powerful military.
But differences remain between Paris and Berlin over what countries legally bound by the pact should do, EU diplomats said.
France wanted a core group of governments to bring money and military assets to PESCO as well as a willingness to intervene abroad. Germany has sought to broaden the pact to make it inclusive, which some experts say could make it less effective.
“This has to bring about a higher level of commitment if it is going to work,” said an EU official, describing PESCO as a ‘defence marriage’. “The EU already has plenty of forums for discussion,” the official said.
So far France, Germany, Italy, Spain and around 16 other EU countries have pledged to join the pact, which could formally be launched when EU leaders meet in December. Some other members, including Denmark, Portugal and Malta, have yet to commit themselves publicly.
Real success for EU defence and PESCO if Poland joins. Strong symbol CSDP complementary to NATO. And a way to bring Warsaw on board with (some of) the Franco-German powered integration initiatives. https://t.co/cYMza3aLeY
— Sophia Besch (@SophiaBesch) November 8, 2017
— Lubomir Cano (@lcask) November 8, 2017
But it was clear that Britain, which intends to leave the bloc following the Brexit referendum of June 2016, would not participate, officials said. Britain has long sought to block EU defence cooperation, fearing it could lead to the development of an EU army.
French diplomats said the pact would have several areas where EU governments would agree to work together and pledge funds, including EU military operations, investment and acquiring defence capabilities together as a group.
A German official said the initiative won momentum from French President Emmanuel Macron’s call for a European intervention force in September and US President Donald Trump’s insistence that Europe do more for its security.
Proposals for PESCO include work on a European medical command and a network of logistics hubs in Europe, the creation of a European Crisis Response centre, and joint training of military officers.
One of the goals is to reduce the number of weapons systems and prevent duplication to save money and improve joint operations.
It could also serve as an umbrella for projects such as a Franco-German initiative to design a new fighter jet, and existing bilateral military cooperation agreements, such as the close ties between Germany and the Netherlands.
Efforts under the pact will be closely coordinated with the US-led NATO alliance to ensure transparency and avoid any redundancies, the German official said.
One area where NATO and EU officials see common ground is in creating a military zone for free movement of troops and equipment, loosely based on the EU’s passport-free travel “Schengen” zone.
— Carnegie Europe (@Carnegie_Europe) October 31, 2017
NATO officials had been sceptical about PESCO but now understood it was important for the Europe Union to respond to humanitarian crises and other disasters, particularly in Africa, a region where NATO has no specific responsibilities.
“This will not happen in competition with NATO,” a German official said. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation would focus on collective defence, while PESCO would ensure a quicker and more efficient EU response to events like the 2014 Ebola crisis in Africa, the official said.