The European Parliament voted for an 80% cut in energy used by buildings today [14 March], a move that will require a massive ramping up of the EU’s renovation targets.
“The current rate and quality of building renovation needs to be substantially scaled up in order to allow the EU to significantly reduce the energy consumption of the existing building stock by 80 %, relative to 2010 levels, by 2050,” the industry committee report on the EU’s Energy Roadmap 2050 reads.
In an unexpected twist, the plenary in Strasbourg also voted for an EU-wide energy efficiency target for 2030, alongside climate goals for renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions.
Although buildings account for around 40% of the EU’s final energy use – and much of the €400 billion it spends on energy imports – the bloc currently has no binding renovation targets.
As an ‘own initiative’ and non-binding report, the parliamentary vote – on the Commission’s Energy Roadmap 2050 – will not change that. But Britta Thomsen, a Danish MEP on the industry committee which proposed it, said that it would still have an effect.
“We start with an ‘own initiative’ report and a dialogue with the Commission, and out of that we then hope that the Commission will come up with a proposal,” she told EURACTIV.
“It’s a vote for a new direction because without a binding target nothing will happen.”
Energy savings advocates say that technologies applied to heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, and heat pumps have the potential to recoup all money invested within less than a decade. Acting now also avoid ‘locking-in’ future carbon emissions from buildings, they said.
Yet between January 2008 and November 2011, building and infrastructure works actually fell by around 16% across the EU.
According to Thomsen, in a time of austerity, these kinds of investments offer the best way to save money, curb emissions and create new jobs at the local and national level.
Local green jobs
“When we talk about renewables – windmills or solar cells – you can produce those in China but renovation of houses goes on in Europe and this means that you will have the jobs here,” she said.
Thomsen added that special care should be taken to ensure that such well-paid ‘green collar’ jobs were not just given to men, but to women as well, who make up half of the tax-paying base.
In an ambitious twist, the parliamentary report called for the renovation target to apply equally to public and private buildings, although it is doubtful whether member states currently have an appetite for grand public works on this sort of scale.
A much less adventurous proposal in last year’s energy efficiency directive – for a yearly 3% renovation rate for public buildings – was watered down in committee negotiations until it only applied to buildings with an area larger than 500 m2.
In countries such as Germany, this narrowed the directive’s scope down to just 37 buildings.
But the directive also requires member states to draw up roadmaps to make their entire buildings sector more efficient by 2050, and this is where the action will now turn.
Officials in one EU country contacted by EURACTIV refused to comment on the steps they were considering, as no final plan had to be drawn up until April 2014.
Last week, Eurima, the European insulation manufacturers association, published a report, ‘Renovation roadmaps for buildings’ which detailed 10 key elements for mapping a path to sustainable buildings.
These include firm and ambitious targets for government and individual requirements for building owners, clarity on work specifications, inclusion of all parties in the renovation process – such as tenants, landlords and local authorities – and solid analysis of market trends.
Certification schemes are important, as are legal instruments to back up policy goals, the report says.
Upfront loans and other repayment mechanisms can help pay for expensive deep renovations, and a smart use of incentives and public education programmes can also help to increase uptake.
One of the most important steps Eurima isolate is ‘backcasting’ or beginning with a future goal – such as an 80% cut in energy use by buildings in 2050 – and then working backwards to identify policies needed to achieve it.
“None of the existing strategies is perfect, but this is a learning-by-doing exercise,” said Andoni Hildago, a spokesman for Eurima.
“There is no doubt about it – we urgently need to address the energy efficient renovation of the EU building stock," said the industry committee's shadow rapporteur Fiona Hall (ALDE – UK). "With poor performing buildings, we are not only wasting energy and money, but we are also missing out on a golden opportunity to deliver on the EU’s climate change, jobs, growth and energy security goals.”
She added: “With this Roadmap, Parliament is sending out a strong message to the Commission and to the Member States to take decisive measures to substantially scale up the rate and quality of building renovation in Europe.”
Adrian Joyce, Campaign Director of the Renovate Europe Campaign agreed. “Over and over again, we are hearing the need to establish a long-term target for the building sector in order to unlock investment," he said. "This call for a long-term vision for reducing the energy demand in buildings must be taken into account as the Commission considers new energy and climate actions post-2020”.
EU nations have signed up to a voluntary objective of reducing the EU's primary energy use by 20% by 2020, measured against 2005 levels. Such savings would slash the EU’s CO2 emissions by an estimated 780 million tonnes and save €100 billion in fuel costs.
One of the EU's main policy tools to achieve this objective is the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), which was initially supposed to reduce the EU's energy consumption by up to 6%.
>> Read our LinksDossier: Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
The directive was recast in 2010 to cover residential and non-residential constructions. It provided a common methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings and covered five main categories of end-uses: heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, and hot water.
All new structures in the EU were required to be nearly zero-energy buildings by 2021, with a 2019 target for the public sector.
The EPBD was also designed to make energy saving measures in buildings more attractive for consumers by obliging national authorities by ensuring that "energy performance certificates are made available when buildings are constructed, sold or rented out."
However, monitoring and compliance with building codes and standards are lacking, according to the Buildings Performance Institute Europe.
- 9 Jan. 2013: Deadline for threshold raising energy performance certificate requirement on public buildings from 1,000m2, to 500m2
- April 2013: Member states present their national programmes for the implementation of the Energy Efficiency Directive.
- 2014: EU pledged to review progress towards energy efficiency 2020 targets and consider binding measures if it is too slow.
- 9 July, 2015: Deadline for threshold raising energy performance requirement on public buildings to 250m2.
- 2016: European Commission to review the Energy Efficiency Directive.
- 1 Jan. 2019: Deadline for all new public buildings to become near-zero CO2 emitters
- 2020: Deadline for EU states to meet voluntary obligation to reduce energy output by 20%, measured against 2005 levels.
- 1 Jan. 2021: Deadline for all new buildings to become near-zero carbon emitters
EU official documents
- European Parliament industry committee: Report on the Energy Roadmap 2050
- European Commission: Europe 2020: Commission proposes new economic strategy in Europe
- European Commission: Very low energy buildings in climate neutral neighbourhood Houthaven Amsterdam
- European Commission: Energy Efficiency in Buildings
- Houthaven:Het ontstaan van een nieuwe thuishaven
Business and industry
- Eurima: Renovation roadmaps for buildings
- European Alliance of Companies for Energy Efficiency in Buildings (EuroACE): Renovate Europe Campaign
Think tanks and academia
- Buildings Performance Institute Europe: Europe’s Buldings Under the Microscope
- EURACTIV Links Dossier: Cutting energy use in Europe's old building stock: Mission impossible?