EU split over expansion into Western Balkans

The minister of foreign affairs of Bulgaria Ekaterina Zaharieva on 15 February 2018 in Sofia. [Bulgarian Presidency]

European Union foreign ministers disagreed on Thursday (15 February) over a proposal by the bloc’s executive to push for expansion into the Western Balkans, a region still scarred by ethnic wars fought in the 1990s and dogged by a reputation for lawlessness.

Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov, whose country currently holds the EU’s rotating presidency, warned it was now or never for expanding the EU into the Balkans as concerns grow about Moscow’s influence in the bloc’s eastern backyard.

Last week the European Union unveiled its new strategy for the region, which aims to give membership to some states by 2025 but insists they must first resolve all border rows.

Hahn: Western Balkans can join EU, but there will be no discount

All six countries in the Western Balkans have a European perspective, and Serbia as one of the leaders in the process could help the entire region’s progress towards membership, Enlargement Commissioner Johannes Hahn said in Belgrade on Wednesday (7 February).

The frontrunners to join are Montenegro and Serbia, with Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia lagging, but all are getting impatient after the EU put expansion on hold four years ago.

“If there’s no enlargement now, there’ll be no other time for enlargement,” said Borisov.

“Otherwise what China, Russia, Turkey are planning for the region, they will start today.”

Hungary’s Peter Szijjarto was “very much disappointed” by that target, saying the first two countries from the Western Balkan six should be admitted already in 2022.

“I think 2025 is very late and they deserve a much quicker way to integration,” Budapest’s foreign minister told reporters, stressing that EU entry would help relieve tensions between neighbours in a region that sits on the bloc’s doorstep.

But Germany, the EU’s leading power, is very reluctant, pointing to rule-of-law shortcomings in the newer member states – from Romania and Bulgaria, to Poland and Hungary.

“I’ve just come from Serbia and in Kosovo the situation is exceptionally difficult. We will speak frankly about this today,” said German Foreign Minister Sigmar Gabriel.

Serbia’s refusal to recognise the independence of its former province Kosovo – something endorsed by most, though not all, EU states – is just one example of intractable regional disputes that threaten the Western Balkans’ Western integration.

EU diplomats say that corruption and powerful criminal gangs that smuggle arms, drugs and migrants over European borders top a long list of problems the six Balkan hopefuls would have to crack down on if they are ever to be allowed into the EU.

EU maps out ‘credible’ Western Balkans strategy

Overcoming a decade of enlargement fatigue, the European Commission launched its long-awaited Western Balkans strategy on Tuesday (6 February), aiming to inject new momentum into EU integration and speed up the homework the six countries need to do before joining the bloc. 

Poland, Italy and Austria are among other EU countries in favour of stepping up efforts to open the bloc to the region, which has seen growing Russian and Chinese influence.

“Who will be first in Belgrade – China or the EU? It is that (which) we have to counteract, as it is our immediate neighbourhood,” Austria’s Karin Kneissl told reporters.

Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borissov said he would host the heads of the Balkan states on March 1 for talks with European Commission chief Jean-Claude Juncker on building new highways and railways to improve links with the EU.

Juncker throws his weight behind Bulgaria's Western Balkan plan

Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker said on Friday (12 January) he would personally talk to each of the six Western Balkan leaders to hear what they expect from the plans by Bulgaria’s EU presidency to revive their long-stalled EU membership prospects.

But Slovenian Foreign Minister Karl Erjavec thought that even 2025 was “not realistic” as a goal, saying the Western Balkan states would need more time to settle their disputes and meet criteria for EU entry.

France’s Jean-Yves Le Drian was also cautious. “It’s clear there are conditions and that those conditions are demanding.”

The informal ministerial continues today with the participation of foreign ministers from the Western Balkan countries. Some of them are expected to voice frustrations over the Commission’s new enlargement strategy.

Macedonian Foreign Minister Nikola Dimitrov said it was difficult for countries to keep moving in the right direction “if it’s locked in the waiting room”.

But he cautioned against overstating the role of Russia in the region.

“I don’t think this should be overestimated but also not underestimated,” he told reporters.

“We have seen the return of geopolitics in some ways but I don’t think the region has an alternative — Europe is the only game in town.”

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