Media4EU: Editorial project and research for Erasmus4media

In 2017 the media will play a crucial role in making or breaking the future of the EU. [Pixabay]

During the #Media4EU editorial series more than 30 media experts from six countries were interviewed about how the sector can overcome its crisis.

This LinksDossier refers to all the interviews that have been published, as well as a bibliography of relevant articles, policy documents and studies used for research.

As many #Media4EU interviewees have highlighted, 2017 will be a decisive year for the future of the EU. At national level, elections taking place in the Netherlands, Germany and France have been accompanied by a nationalistic rhetoric that undermines the legitimacy of the project's very existence.

Meanwhile, Europe's international commitments vis-à-vis the migration crisis, the war on terror and renewed pressures from Russia its eastern members, have made the Union more vulnerable.

This multi-faceted crisis of the EU could not come at a worse time. The media sector in several member states is confronted with pressures on its revenue and with an audience that increasingly distrusts mainstream reporting.

When it comes to accessing information online, news consumer habits have also changed: social media platforms are now crucial distribution channels but they also absorb most of the ad revenue, and many free platforms often don't guarantee ethical journalistic standards.

Professor François Heinderyckx, dean of the faculty of letters, translation and communication at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, explained: "a sure sign of what happens when news media go wrong is that people don’t understand the world they live in, and in this particular case they don’t understand Europe".

Historically, manipulating the media has been instrumental to the rise of populist movements, and 2017 is no exception. In the EU, the governments of Poland and Hungary have been accused of exercising pressure on state-run and private media, and of threatening press freedom and plurality in their countries.

At the same time, intelligence services in the UK and the US have alleged that Russian intelligence is planting propaganda in the fake news mix, which is thriving on social platforms, and coordinating cyber attacks in an attempt to divide the West and reclaim Russia's global-influence aspirations.

Continental Europe hasn't been spared either. Emmanuel Macron also famously claimed that his campaign was targeted by Russian hackers, and a Swedish study allegedly retraced obscure stories that interfered with their national public debate back to Russian intelligence services.

“We are able to establish intent, dominant narratives, behavioural patterns and strategic goals, where the close correlation between Russian public diplomacy and active measures suggest the operation of a coordinated campaign,” wrote the Swedish Institute of International Affairs in an extensive report published in January 2017.

Faced with such far-reaching political implications, media organisations on the continent are looking to the EU to take more robust action, especially this week during the celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome.

Rumors are that the media will not be included in the final roadmap put together by President Juncker to relaunch the European project but the hope is that the institutions will support innovation projects to help quality journalism evolve and be sustainable.

In particular, the #Erasmus4media programme has been welcomed by many in the sector, as well as by a wide variety of MEPs and political figures across party lines.

Engage in the conversation! Tweet using #Media4EU and #Erasmus4media @LeclercqEU or @FondEURACTIV

The revenue crisis of the media

According to the "Digital News Report", a long term project conducted by the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, news consumers across Europe are changing their information sources rapidly.

Back in 2012, the report showed that in selected countries including Germany, France, the UK and Denmark, about 50% the population had used radio as a news source in the previous week and 60% had looked at print.

By comparison, in 2016, less than 38.5% mentioned radio in the same countries and even more drastically only 32% print. TV was also affected, although less significantly, losing about seven points in those four years.

This shift to online platforms indicates that neither printing ads nor selling copies can be considered a sustainable business model anymore.

Moreover, Google and Facebook are already absorbing most of the online ad revenue and are expected to take over 71% of the UK market by 2020 according to a 2016 report by OC&C Strategy Consultants.

The way the media is coping with this crisis is mainly by experimenting with event organisation and new formats such as branded content for long-term partnerships.

However, the sector is also experiencing 'oligarchisation' movements, including mergers, acquisitions and other forms of concentration, which threaten its plurality and independence.

Populism and fake news

Social media is cited as the main source of information by an increasing amount of news consumers. According to the 2016 "Digital news report", the number was 8.6% in 2015, and it jumped to 10.8% only one year later. The trend is particularly pronounced for younger generations, which means it is likely here to stay.

Miguel Castro, a senior officer at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation explained: "Conversations are more fragmented and the number of voices is incredibly larger than it used to be. That makes for a very complex picture, in which what used to be called the silent majority now has a process to get its voice out pretty easily. If you add to that the fact that the conversation span is much shorter, that makes understanding what society thinks very complex."

Populist movements have been particularly successful in exploiting these new channels, and have accused traditional media and political parties of being disconnected from the average person. On the other hand, established organisations have expressed their concern about propaganda in the form of fake news infiltrating national political debates and decision-making.

Der Tagesspiegel publisher Sebastian Turner warns: "We now have the same situation for social media and other fields, where you’d be completely surprised about where the money comes from. [...] We are facing just the top of the iceberg. Our media system is really changing in terms of independence."

Populism threatens the EU

In the words of Gabriele Capolino, executive editor-in-chief of Class Editori: "What we call populism is a pan-European and now also pan-American crisis of the middle class. This is the result of the first ten or twenty years of so-called ‘globalisation’ [...] Now that we are making the first assessment of the process in Italy and in other countries, we realise that it has basically destroyed the middle class."

Many other experts also believe in a correlation between the rise of populist parties and people's dissatisfaction with their economic position. But the phenomenon also affects the EU: the "blame it on Brussels" syndrome, combined with the lack of a European media sector that can support a public debate on crucial EU policy issues, endangers bottom-up support for the European project.

Marco Zatterin, vice director of  La Stampa, said: "People all over Europe have been baffled by the economic crisis, which struck when they were not ready to face it [...] Then we had this populist wave, people thought that there could be a shortcut out of the crisis, which has specifically been damaging their welfare and lifestyle. This shortcut was: ‘let’s get out of Europe, let’s kill our mother Europe’."


The UK's decision to leave the EU challenged the identity and legitimacy of the institution like no political development ever before. Many interviewees agreed that British Euroscepticism has also negatively impacted the reporting on Europe today, and will likely continue to do so in the future.

In fact, much of the debate on Europe is influenced by the English-speaking media, which will be looking at Brussels from the outside once the negotiations are over.

According to John Peet, political editor at The Economist: "There is of course another British-based media group that has a very strong line on Europe which tends to be quite hostile and indeed was one of the reasons why the British voters backed Brexit. I think it has always been prone to exaggeration, not quite lying but tending to put a bad gloss on what’s going on in Europe [...] British and American media do have a disproportionate impact in Brussels compared to French or German media because so many people read English. This is not always quite good."

EU intervention

So how can the sector overcome its crisis? Many experts have criticised how the European institutions never established a strategy for the media as they did for other sectors undergoing deep transformations. Although most agree that direct subsidies would pose a threat to journalistic integrity and independence, EU support for innovation projects is largely welcomed.

José Manuel Sanz Mingote, international director of EFE, shared his analysis: "I don’t think that we need high level regulation or intervention from Brussels but rather some form of support of good practices. Moreover, if the European institutions need to communicate, they should rely on the European media sector to fulfil these needs."

On the other side of the channel, however, the institutions are not perceived as neutral, and even some of the most pro-European publications don't want them to get involved.

Emma Tucker, editorial director of The Times said: "Obviously it’s in our interest to have a stronger newspaper industry in Britain and in Europe, but I think the answer shouldn’t come from the European institutions because people would get annoyed and wonder ‘why are you meddling in here?’.This is an industry issue and it should be treated as such."

More cooperation across borders

With shrinking resources and an outdated division of labour, which  is too hierarchical and mainly focuses on national news, many media outlets resort to agencies and freelancers to cover international and European stories.

However, another solution is to exchange content between partners through a process involving syndication, translation, localisation and curation. This would not only apply to articles, but also to new formats that can travel much easier across borders and language barriers, like subtitled videos, infographics, pictures and data-journalism products.

Irene Toporkoff,  co-founder of Worldcrunch, says: "It is curious: there is more and more interest for international news, but less budget for foreign correspondents. So the way Worldcrunch approaches this issue is to translate stories that have been written locally, which is both an interesting and cost-efficient solution"

Networks like the Leading European Newspapers Alliance (LENA), Europa, Euranet and many others that were discontinued, have been attempting this with a few successes. However, the lack of a sustainable business model to support these exchanges makes them vulnerable in the long term.

There are multiple advantages to this process: by limiting the re-publication of agencies, news outlets could publish more high quality and diverse content. Moreover, the costs of a journalist producing original stories would be reduced, and more topics could be included. Finally, complex issues such as EU-policy or internal political developments of neighbouring states would be covered with more insight and more often.

But there are multiple hurdles to cross-border cooperation between national media organisations. First of all, the technological tools used are not always compatible. Secondly, translation often takes time, and national stories that travel across borders need to be contextualised for readers from other cultures. Lastly, and most importantly, what it comes down to is the mindset of journalists.

The human factor

Ultimately, improving European coverage is about people: most professionals in the sector lack cross-border skills and knowledge of the EU institutions and of other countries' political systems.

"I visit a lot of newsrooms and I seem to notice […] that their staff is ethnically and culturally usually more homogeneous than the rest of their country and if there is one thing you usually don’t find […] are colleagues and journalists from other European countries." said Wolfgang Blau, Chief Digital Officer of Conde Nast, In a 2014 keynote speech at the International Journalism Festival in Perugia.

Journalists are often more inclined to share their content rather than accept articles from others, even if their international colleagues are not direct competitors. Moreover, the editorial and commercial sections of news outlets struggle to cooperate on innovative solutions to keep their media organisations sustainable. Finally, Media professionals both on the editorial and commercial side lack the skills and contact network to facilitate innovative projects across borders.


Exchanging young professionals between media organisations in different countries could speed up innovation processes and develop a more integrated and sustainable European sector. The Erasmus + programme has been described by former editor of ANSA, Agence Europe and EURACTIV Italy, Giampiero Gramaglia, as "probably the best scheme that the European Union has ever created and financed".

Commenting on #Erasmus4media, he also added: "with journalists you can achieve a multiplier effect because they can reach a lot of people. So you would improve their journalistic performance and let lots of people know that the European environment could contribute something to their professional development."

In 2010, the Commission put together a report to assess the feasibility of an Erasmus programme for journalists. The study, conducted in collaboration with Economisti Associati and the European Journalism Centre concluded that: "an ERASMUS for journalists programme is feasible, and could potentially contribute (albeit to a varying extent) to achieving all of the objectives that have been set."

These objectives included the following:

  • Facilitate exchanges or other forms of mobility for journalists from different countries and media within the EU;
  • Further journalistic understanding of the EU;
  • Further journalistic understanding of other member states;
  • Enhance journalistic professional skills and abilities;
  • Contribute to media pluralism in Europe;
  • Contribute to the creation of a European media sphere.

However, the #media4EU series also highlighted the need for more cooperation between the editorial and commercial sides of organisations. That is why #Erasmus4media would involve other "rising stars", such as social media managers, marketing and communications professionals and others.

Reporting the EU

  • Javier Moreno, Director of the Leading European Newspaper Alliance (LENA)

The European project has brought us closer than ever in our history and we sense that there is a lack of common public debate on issues which affect us all and which will come to define our future. So beyond sharing content, beyond making the most out of the dwindling resources we all have in the industry, we also have a lofty goal, I would say, which is […] to have a stronger European public opinion.

To me the coverage of Europe has to lean more towards concrete issues which are related to the reality of citizens. It might look like almost local news or very ’unimportant news’, but I think covering the reality of the daily lives of citizens from other parts of Europe can mean a lot in terms of understanding what Europe means today and what it can mean for the future.

  • Robert Madelin, Former Director General of the European Commission’s Communications Networks, Content and Technology (CNECT) department

European media will win by innovation and giving the customer what they need and that means being local everywhere. If in the past, the sustainability of many print media houses came from having a big business in regional imprints, why is it harder to do that online than it was before?

Now, it happens to be that lots of the English writing around Europe is very distorted and even false many times, yet those are the type of stories that get cross-border attention. It is not about being pro-EU or anti-EU, it is about having a debate over Europe that is not disproportionately influenced by English-speaking media.

In Europe, to transform this sector, we are proceeding from the point of view of a European monoculture… whereas it is important that there is a festival in Salzburg, or in another small town in Austria, or in Massiac in France. So, cultural diversity needs to be taken into account to avoid “technocratic levelling”.

European affairs is not a subject like any other, it represents essential information for our companies, our institutions, our citizens, professionals etc. So as a state company with an obligation to public service we thought that reporting on European affairs was our responsibility.

Generally speaking, many media organisations think that talking about Europe means wasting time […] But it is first and foremost the media’s job to consider that European news coverage is expected by their audience, and that it is only by doing quality reporting on Europe that they will develop.

In the light of happened with Trump, Brexit, the rise of Neo-Nazis in Germany and in France, the economic problems of southern countries, the refugee crisis etc. […] The communication around all of these problems is really important. I don’t understand why the Commission would stop its support for Euronews and other similar channels.


The rise of populism and of social media

We are also losing some readers because of the transfer of some of our content to social media, especially to Facebook. If that happened in the right way, directing traffic from social media to our pages, that would be okay. But I have a feeling that too often people don’t buy our newspaper and instead chose to have only partial access to the content distributed by social media.

I have another point of view. I believe that traditional media products still have problems with their relatability. They are perceived as partisan in these debates, and because of that more and more people are looking for new sources of information and then they try to use social media as an equal source to traditional media. That’s the point: they perceive traditional media as a part of the whole system.

It feels like 2016 is the year when the digital revolution has finally hit the nervous centres of democratic power. Global media outlets spent years discussing the impact of blogs on serious journalism, the role of social media in the Arab Spring and in the Greek protests, the risks of cyber-attacks, etc. Now that the White House has fallen to anti-establishment insurgents, there is a survival instinct and a renewed urgency to talk about facts, opinion, fake news, filter bubbles and propaganda.

  • Virginia Perez Alonso, Deputy Editor-in-Chief of Público

I think that mainstream media writes and publishes for the establishment and what we’ve seen since the invention of the internet is that people can find information anyway, and not necessarily on their websites. […] They have lost credibility because they can’t realise that they are writing for the establishment while the middle class is increasingly against it, because the average people are slowly losing their economic position.

Nacho Cardero: You are asking: ‘how are we going to save the world from populism?’ Journalists are not here to save the world, they are here to do journalism.

Angel Villarino: And the fact that we don’t have a political agenda makes us free and powerful.



We are living an industrial revolution which could even be a civilizational revolution. Maybe one day we will say that the digital transformation is not just like all the other modern-day revolutions, it is more like the invention of the press, meaning something that will forever change the way we access knowledge.

The problem is that in Italy the managerial and the editorial parts of newspapers traditionally don’t interact much, because of the fear of contamination between advertising and news. […] I think it would be useful if the commercial and the management section of a newspaper could face each other in a clear setting, maybe with an institution providing education, long-life learning or skills improvement programmes.

Journalists should be a very forward-looking group of people, and most of them aren’t […] My personal experience is that the moment you send them out, you tell them about Europe, they come back convinced that there is a chance for the EU and that Europe is our big home in which we get to defend our own country.

In Germany, for instance, we have an awful, absolutely nonsensical principle that you have to complete academic studies to become a journalist with the public TV and radio system [...] We don’t have enough migrants, we don’t have enough people with a practical education or with a natural science background in almost any editorial teams, including the one I’m speaking for. [...] The key point is that reporters need to step out of their bubble, whatever that may be.



I think it would be fair to say that the people who voted to leave were not necessarily the sort of people who read The Economist or the Financial Times. […]  However, I think as people start to worry about the economic consequences of Brexit, it is possible that public opinion will shift towards a solution that minimises the economic damage that could arise from Brexit. I expect that Britain will leave the European Union but I think it may do so in a less damaging way than some people feared on June 24.

Every day I wake up and I’m grateful for the six years I spent in Brussels because it’s never been more important for British journalists to understand what goes on there. Having lived and breathed really detailed areas of the European project for six years has definitely helped me understand what’s at stake, the extent to which Britain is part of the European Union and what the challenges ahead are.


Should the EU have a media policy?

If we talk about the future of democracy it is very important to have a media sector which informs about the world and doesn’t spread fake news. I think that the European Union should help us survive, develop and inform society about the real issues. […] In my opinion, direct subsidies won’t work, but the European Union could create a structure of grants for the media.

The anniversary [of the Rome Treaty, on March 25 in Rome] is an occasion to create interest and attention to the integration process not only in Italy, because Rome will be at the centre, but in all Europe. However, we don’t want to give the people the feeling that we are wasting time and money for a celebration. My hope is that this occasion will be a moment for launching something concrete, even just a single project.

I would also welcome and encourage more investment into research and development, especially in areas concerning intercultural exchange and data journalism. […] I believe that the institutions should offer more and better training programs for journalists, because many new tools have been made available […] but many professionals still don’t know how to use them.

Today, the idea of Europe is basically funded by fear and the eurozone is not perceived as a good thing in itself, but as something we don’t know how to live without. The EU has to communicate better how valuable it is to live in Europe.


New revenue models

Well I think that press freedom is an idea, a theory, a dream. What the Europeans can do is support the continuum of a press identity, which means having publishing houses which are not connected with power and business.

Stop subsidising them [the media] because we are in a market that is becoming increasingly artificial. Now the press is not simply a market, but it is still also a market.

I’m not on the side of those who are asking for public financing of papers, not at all. It’s a question of independence and credibility. If we talk about the crisis of media we’re not only talking about the economic aspect but also about the struggle for credibility. If you want to undermine the credibility we do have, then you should ask for public subsidies.

However, I would say that there is room for growth in the philanthropic branch. Supporting the media is not a priority neither in the US, where charitable support is almost an industry with a turnover of 358 billion dollars a year, nor in Europe, where there are more than 15,000 foundations.


Innovation and technology

It is curious: there is more and more interest for international news, but less budget for foreign correspondents. So the way Worldcrunch approaches this issue is to translate stories that have been written locally, which is both an interesting and cost-efficient solution. […] [but] if the second ‘B’ in ‘B2B’ is the media, then the main problem is always budget. Media organisations concentrate on their core activities, so it is not always easy for them invest more into acquiring other perspectives.

So the evolution of the media sector could go two ways: Firstly this trend could continue and language technology could be used to repurpose a piece of – sometimes questionable – content for different languages, styles, audiences, and markets. Alternatively, media companies could finally think about appropriate business models for the 21st century and use language technology to support proper investigative journalism and efficient content creation.


"7 Experts on Europe's Biggest Media Innovators." 20 Jan. 2015. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"As It Happened: Six To-dos for Sustainable European Media." 03 Feb. 2015. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

“Can EU hear me? How to Get the Message out”. Friends of Europe, Gallup Europe, Fondation EURACTIV. October 2004. Print.

"Challenges facing the EU media sector." 20 Mar. 2017. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.

"Commission Admits It Must Do ‘much Better’ on Communications." 05 Jan. 2015. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"Commission Sees Need for 'moral Compass' on Media Freedom." 12 Feb. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2017.

"Commission to 'look Seriously' at Euronews Mess." 14 Feb. 2017. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"Commission: Beware Digital Media's Tribal Lure." 27 Jan. 2015. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"Erasmus4Media: Exchanging media professionals could solve sector’s crisis." 23 Mar. 2017. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.

"EURACTIV Presents Wallström with Draft ‘Yellow Paper’ on Communication." 06 May 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2017.

"Euronews Journalists, Technicians Clash with Management." 08 Dec. 2016. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

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"How traditional media can beat populism on the web 2.0." 20 Mar. 2017. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.

"Malta's New Draft Law Raises Concerns over Internet Freedom." 22 Feb. 2017. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"Mr Juncker: Pick One Commissioner for Communications, Another for the Media Sector." 05 Jan. 2015. Web. 15 Mar. 2017.

"Murdoch and Berlusconi Partner on Transatlantic Media, Announce EURACTIV and Roll Call Takeover." 28 Apr. 2015. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"News Industry Turning Mobile, US Study Shows." 05 May 2015. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"Polish Media Caught between Government, Advertisers and Donald Tusk." 15 Mar. 2017. Web. 15 Mar. 2017.

"Should the EU have a media policy?" 23 Mar. 2017. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.

"Wanted: New revenue models for European media" 23 Mar. 2017. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.


Media organisations:

Cazenave., Fabien. "Euranet Plus, Le Réseau Européen De Radios En Péril." Ouest-France, 20 Oct. 2016. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

" Se Asocia Con the Guardian Para Crear Su Sección De Internacional.", 12 Jan. 2016. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

Foy, Henry. “Jaroslaw Kaczynski: Poland’s kingmaker”. Financial Times. Feb. 26 2016. Web. Mar 01 2017.

Lepore, Jill. "Will Free Wi-Fi Destroy the Party System?" The New Yorker. The New Yorker, 11 Nov. 2016. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

"Médias Européens: Le Maquis Des Financements Publics." Mediapart. Web. 15 Mar. 2017.

Penketh, Anne, Philip Oltermann, and Stephen Burgen. "European Newspapers Search for Ways to Survive Digital Revolution." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 12 June 2014. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

Sweney, Mark. "More than Half of Britons Access News Online." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 08 Aug. 2013. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

Vranica, Suzanne, and Jack Marshall. "Plummeting Newspaper Ad Revenue Sparks New Wave of Changes." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 20 Oct. 2016. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

Wakefield, Jane. "Social Media 'outstrips TV' as News Source for Young People." BBC News. BBC, 15 June 2016. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.


Media associations:

Barbara Raab, Program Officer, Creativity and Free Expression. "Behind the Panama Papers: A Q&A with International Consortium of Investigative Journalists Director Gerard Ryle." Ford Foundation. 13 June 2016. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

"European Publishers Are Teaming Together to Translate the News to Reach Broader Audiences." Nieman Lab. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

"For Many Legacy News Organizations in Europe, Digital Disruption Comes with New Ideas but Few Answers." Nieman Lab. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

Guevara, Marina Walker, and Gerard Ryle. "Luxembourg Leaks a Case Study in Collaborative Journalism." International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. 06 Nov. 2014. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

Karstens, About The AuthorEric. "Eight Ways the EU Can Help Journalism." European Journalism Observatory - EJO. 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

"Keynote Speech by Wolfgang Blau. Still No Pan-European Media. Are We Nuts?" Internazional Journalism Festival. Web. 15 Mar. 2017.

Newman, Nic. Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2012: “Tracking the Future of News. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism”, 2012. Print.

"Policy Report: European Union Competencies in Respect of Media Pluralism and Media Freedom." Centre for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom (CMPF).  European University Institute. Web. 15 Mar. 2017.

"Reactions to Juncker's State of the Union Speech Show the Difficulties in Creating a European Public Sphere Online." EUROPP. 28 Sept. 2016. Web. 01 Mar. 2017.

"World Press Trends: Newspaper Revenues Shift To New Sources". WAN-IFRA. Jun. 01 2015. Web. Mar. 01 2015.


Fondation EURACTIV:

"#Erasmus4media: Speeding–up Media Innovation?" EuRoman. 02 Mar. 2017. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"#Media4EU Tour D’Europe: Perspectives for Europe's Media Sector." EuRoman. 24 Oct. 2016. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"#Media4EU Research Results." EuRoman. 08 Mar. 2017. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"#Media4EU Tour D'Europe: Why Cross-border Cooperation Makes for a Fitter Digital Europe." EuRoman. 13 Feb. 2017. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"4ème Assises Européennes Du Plurilinguisme – Plurilinguisme Et Créativité : Le Cas D'EurActiv." EuRoman. 27 May 2016. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"Assises Du Journalisme –2016 : Prix De L'info, Indépendance, Et Concentration Nationale." EuRoman. 08 Apr. 2016. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"DifferenceDay @BOZAR: No 'Europe' Section in Every Paper, Rather: Media Cooperation and Languages." EuRoman. 02 Dec. 2015. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"Japan’s Nikkei Buys the FT: Not Good News for Europe, Could Affect the Referendum." EuRoman. 28 July 2015. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"Steering Committee ‘#Media4EU Tour D’Europe’ Project." EuRoman. 09 Feb. 2017. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.

"Yes! to Erasmus4Media – Support Media Innovation!" EuRoman. 21 Mar. 2017. Web. 21 Mar. 2017.


Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism:

Kuhn, Raymond, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. Political Journalism in Transition: Western Europe in a Comparative Perspective. London: I.B. Tauris &, 2014. Print.

Lloyd, John, and Cristina Marconi. Reporting the EU: News, Media and the European Institutions. London: I.B. Tauris, 2014. Print.

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Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis, and Geert Linnebank. Public Support for the Media: A Six-country Overview of Direct and Indirect Subsidies. Oxford, United Kingdom: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, 2011. Print.

Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis, and Richard Sambrook. What's Happening to Television News?: Digital News Project 2016. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, U of Oxford, 2016. Print.


EU Institutions:

“5 Years of Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs. A Springboard for Business.” Eurochambres. 2013. Print.

“Evaluation Report of EuroParlTV”.  The European parliament. Print.

“Feasibility study for the preparatory action ‘ERASMUS for journalists’. Final Report”. Economisti Associati and the European Journalism Centre. Feb. 2011. Print.

“Interim Evaluation of PressEurop. Final Report”. European Commission Directorate General Communication. 13 November 2012. Print.

“Standard Eurobarometer 86 Autumn 2016. First results. Public Opinion in the EU.” European Commission. December 2016. Print.

“White Paper On Communication”. DG Communication. 30 Sept 2006. Print.



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