Parliament calls for EU strategy on Roma inclusion


The European Parliament yesterday (9 March) threw its weight behind an EU-wide strategy to support the social inclusion of Roma communities, but the European Commission is insisting that this should mainly be seen as the responsibility of national governments.

A massive majority of members of the European Parliament (MEPs) gave their backing to a strategy, which would promote targeted action at all levels to deal with the wide range of social and economic problems that affect the everyday lives of an estimated 10 million people, Europe's largest ethnic minority.

However, the European Commission has already made clear that national governments are primarily responsible for developing and implementing policies to protect fundamental rights, tackle discrimination and promote social inclusion.

Next month (5 April), the Commission is due to present proposals on creating an EU framework for national Roma integration strategies. The emphasis will be on encouraging the development of 27 national strategies, rather than one European strategy.

According to László Andor, the EU commissioner responsible for employment, social policy and inclusion, an approach based on national strategies is necessary in order to take account of "the diversity of the realities" in different countries.

"There is a common European problem, but how it appears in various member states, and how it has to be translated into national strategies, differs from Romania to France, from Slovakia to Portugal, and we have to be aware of this," the commissioner told MEPs in Strasbourg earlier this week.

Resolution wins broad backing of MEPs

"The social inclusion of Roma is one of the most important strategic challenges that Europe faces and at the same time it provides one of the most promising opportunities for the continent," said centre-right European People's Party (EPP) MEP Livia Járóka, who drafted the Parliament's resolution calling for the strategy.

The Hungarian MEP,who in June 2004 became the first Roma woman ever to be elected to the European Parliament,  received the support of 576 colleagues at the EU assembly's plenary session in Strasbourg yesterday (9 March).

The text was endorsed by no less than 86% of the MEPs who took part in the vote, including almost all members of the centre-right (EPP) and liberal (ALDE) groups, as well as those on the left side of the hemicycle, such as the Socialists & Democrats and Green groups.

Only 32 members of far-right parties voted against the resolution, including the current and former leaders of France's Front National – Marine and Jean-Marie Le Pen respectively.

According to, 60 MEPs abstained, including all of the UK Conservatives and five members of Silvio Berlusconi's 'People of Freedom' (Il Popolo della Libertà) party.

The result of Wednesday's vote is living proof of the broad consensus that Járóka has been able to build since the beginning of last year, when she was given the task of drafting a report for the Parliament's committee on civil liberties, justice and home affairs.

Roma excluded from 'basic human rights'

Speaking in Strasbourg before the vote, Járóka described how "a significant proportion of European Roma" are facing "substandard conditions almost totally disconnected from the economy, resulting in their exclusion from basic human rights".

"The EU-level effort to alleviate the poverty and social exclusion of the European Roma must therefore place its primary emphasis on the fulfilment and promotion of the fundamental rights to employment, housing, health care and education," she insisted.

The resolution adopted by the Parliament calls for an EU strategy on Roma inclusion that would lead to the introduction of "binding minimum standards at EU level" in relation to each of these key areas of social policy.

The text says that the EU strategy should be an "inclusive and multilevel action plan," and that it should be "prepared and implemented at all political and administrative levels".

The European Commission would be responsible for coordinating, supervising and monitoring the proposed strategy, evaluating the results and producing annual reports, with a regularly-updated scoreboard to show the progress being made in each of the member states.

According to Járóka, such an EU strategy must also take into account the territorial dimension of exclusion, recognising that "the geographical distribution of social disadvantages is not uniform throughout the member states".

"Poverty and social exclusion are concentrated in underdeveloped micro-regions, which in many of the new member states are predominantly inhabited by the Roma community," said the Hungarian.

The European Parliament is calling on member states to develop integrated policies in cooperation with representatives of the Roma population, making use of all the financial resources available from the various EU funds, such as the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the European Social Fund (ESF) and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD).

Járóka believes that part of the budget for the EU Cohesion Funds in the next period (2014-2020) should be set aside to provide resources and financial incentives, which could be allocated on a competitive basis to projects that promote the inclusion of Roma.

Responding to remarks by a number of MEPs, Commissioner Andor made clear his wish to adapt the European Social Fund so that it would focus more on supporting social inclusion and on helping to create employment opportunities for unskilled or low-skilled workers.

With regard to the role of the EU's Cohesion Policy, he promised that the Commisson would look carefully at the request from the Parliament to focus on the "territorial dimension of poverty" – including the particular needs of "underdeveloped micro-regions".

Not without civil society

Also speaking for the EU executive, Vice-President Viviane Reding described the integration of Roma as a "moral obligation" as well as "an economic interest".

Reding promised that the Commission's proposals for an EU framework for national Roma integration strategies would build on the ideas put forward by the Parliament, and also take account of contributions from different member states and from civil society.

"There is a need for concrete actions, for clear commitments, to make better use of the range of available legal and financial instruments, in order to achieve a breakthrough," said the Commission vice-president, who emphasised the role of the European Platform for Roma Inclusion, which was created in 2009, as providing "a unique mechanism for involving the stakeholders".

Presidency keeps issue in the spotlight

The Hungarian EU Presidency will host the fifth meeting of the European Platform for Roma Inclusion in Budapest on 7-8 April, which coincides with International Roma Day.

On 19 May, the Council of Ministers for employment, social policy, health and consumer affairs will meet in Gödöll? near Budapest, where they will be invited to adopt conclusions in response to the Commission's proposals on an EU framework for national Roma integration strategies.

László Andor, the EU commissioner responsible for employment, social policy and inclusion, underlined the importance of the 'Europe 2020' strategy for tackling poverty and social exclusion – also among Roma – across all of the member states.

"It is clear that a number of member states will not be able to make sufficient progress towards the Europe 2020 targets unless they take concrete steps to improve Roma integration," he said.

"Although member states are primarily responsible for designing and implementing Roma integration strategies, the EU can indeed support them," said Andor.

The Hungarian EU Presidency was represented in Strasbourg by Zoltán Balog, Hungary's Secretary of State for social inclusion. He welcomed the Parliament's report and underlined the Hungarian government's commitment to keeping the issue of Roma inclusion in the spotlight.

"We want to improve the chances of millions of EU citizens," said Balog. "We want to ensure that they have the same rights and the same chances, and we need to make sure that the potential these people can bring is genuinely brought to fruition."

Romanian MEP Rovana Plumb, a member of the Socialists & Democrats group in the European Parliament, stated that in her view a European strategy could help to support the social integration of the Roma community in Romania, which she noted is the largest in Europe.

"The social integration of Roma lags behind, being considered Utopian by many, both in the administration and in the community," said Plumb.

"We need a European strategy to frame the national efforts aimed at providing socio-economic inclusion for the Roma, education, training opportunities and job assistance, especially for women," she added.

Romanian liberal MEP Renate Weber of ALDE group in the European Parliament expressed doubt about the Commission's idea of establishing a framework for national strategies, rather than a fully-fledged EU-level strategy for Roma inclusion.

"This is about more than funding. It is very much about the basic human rights of this population group," Weber insisted.

"In my view, people in developed countries 'discovered' the Roma not necessarily because they recognised the bad conditions in which Roma were living in their countries of origin, but because they were bothered by the presence of Roma in the streets and on the margins of cities," she said.

Speaking for the Greens, French MEP Hélène Flautre also shared her scepticism with regard to the notion of an EU framework. "The member states will only make progress in this area if they are obliged and given clear incentives by the European Commission," she said.

"This can only happen with a very precise evaluation of results, based on common reference criteria and indicators, as well as the participation of all interested parties, including the Roma communities," said Flautre, calling on the Commission to organise pilot projects in the micro-regions where many Roma live.

The term 'Roma' refers to a variety of groups of people who describe themselves as Roma, Gypsies, Travellers, Manouches, Ashkali and Sinti, as well as other titles.

Roma are recognised as being the biggest ethnic minority in the European Union, with between 10 and 12 million people, mostly EU citizens, living in all 27 member states.

Members of the Roma minority face discrimination and social exclusion, based on racial prejudice and negative stereotyping, which in some cases has been spread by politicians and mass media.

The result of this discrimination and exclusion is that Roma are more likely to be affected by poverty and unemployment, as well as low education levels and bad housing conditions.

On 7 April 2010, the European Commission adopted a communication on the social and economic integration of Roma in Europe.

  • 5 April: European Commission to present proposals on creating EU framework for national Roma integration strategies.
  • 7-8 April: 5th meeting of European Platform for Roma Inclusion in Budapest.
  • 19 May: Council of Ministers for employment, social policy, health and consumer affairs meeting in Gödöll? (Hungary).
  • 23 May: Foreign ministers discuss conclusions at General Affairs Council meeting in Brussels.
  • 24 June: EU leaders are expected to adopt conclusions on Roma integration at summit in Brussels.


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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

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