An article entitled Football Banning Orders, Proportionality, and Public Order Policing published in the Howard Journal of Criminal Justice‘s July 2006 issue questions the extent to which the control of football ‘hooliganism’ is simply a matter of controlling ‘hooligans’.
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice abstract of the article:
This article provides a critical analysis of the UK legislation on football banning orders. The historical development of this legislation is outlined and concerns are raised about its impact upon civil liberties and human rights, particularly with respect to Section 14B of the Football (Disorder) Act 2000. The article then outlines a body of research on crowd psychology, public order policing and football ‘disorder’ that questions the determining role of the banning order in the reduction of English ‘hooliganism’ at international football tournaments. With regard to tests of proportionality the article concludes by raising important questions about the efficacy and justifiability of football banning orders as a long-term strategy for the management of football ‘hooliganism’.
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