EU regulators are preparing draft legislation that will require vehicle fuel use to be tested on roads rather than in laboratories, looking to close loopholes that allow car makers to exaggerate fuel-saving and emissions credentials.
From 1 September, slightly tougher EU testing standards will be enforced, in line with a global push for accuracy. More-stringent standards are likely to be opposed by automakers.
European Commission research published last year showed that lab techniques, such as taping up car doors and windows and driving on an unrealistically smooth surface, explained around a third of a recorded drop in average EU emissions of planet-warming carbon dioxide (CO2), linked to reduced fuel consumption.
An EU official, talking on condition of anonymity because he is not authorised to speak to journalists, said a proposal on “a new real-world testing method” was expected by the year-end. This would need to be endorsed by EU member states.
Other officials also said a proposal was expected over the coming months.
The Commission says that nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, linked to lung disease and hundreds of thousands of early deaths, have been miscalculated to a still-greater extent than CO2 levels.
“In the real world we have seen that NOX emissions are higher than indicated by the test, up to a factor 4 or 5 and exceptionally more,” one EU official said.
No one from the European Commission was available for official comment, although the Commission has previously made clear its wish to tighten the testing regime.
A policy document published last year said “real-world” NOX emissions were roughly five times the EU limit, adding that had a major impact on pollution and generated “negative publicity and reputational damage for vehicle manufacturers”.
Under the testing regime from 1 September, diesel models, which have been particularly blamed for NOX emissions, should emit no more than 0.08 gram (80 milligrams) of NOX per kilometre.
Environmental groups, independent researchers and the Commission say even in the new regime, loopholes mean such emissions will be higher.
The old tests, obsolete at the end of August, are based on a 0.180 g/km limit as part of a reduction from 0.5 g/km over 15 years.
The car industry has acknowledged the tests are flawed, but argues the Commission needs to be realistic. VDA, the lobby for the German car industry, said it was working on its own real-world testing proposal, which it would put before the Commission.
The industry’s position is that it has a major challenge to adapt to a law enforcing the world’s toughest limits on carbon dioxide, which the EU agreed earlier this year.
Car-makers argue that it is too soon to set a 2025 standard on car CO2 emissions, which the Commission says it is working on, with a view to a policy announcement this year.
“Further targets should not be set prematurely for the period after 2021,” VDA said in a statement. It said it was vital “industrial policy and climate protection targets have equal priority”.
While car-makers have reservations, vehicle tester TUV Nord welcomed new regulations, saying it had been involved in Commission debate on the real-world tests, which will need member state approval under a fast-track EU process to become law.
Passenger cars alone are responsible for around 12% of total EU emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas.
In 2007, the EU proposed legislation setting emission performance standards for new cars, which was adopted in 2009 by the European Parliament and the EU Council of Ministers.
The Cars Regulation set the average fleet emissions to be achieved by all new cars at 130 grams of CO2 per km (g/km) by 2015 – with the target phased in from 2012.
Proposals published in 2012 set further targets of 95g for new passenger cars by 2020, and 147 g/km for vans. Germany then pressured ministers to weaken the target.
- 2015: 130 grams of CO2 per km target to be enforced across Europe
- 2021: Deadline for 95g/km target for cars
- 2025: European Commission could impose another milestone on the road to decarbonisation by 2050
- 2030: European Commission could impose another milestone on the road to decarbonisation by 2050
- DG Clima: Reducing CO2 emissions from passenger cars
- DG Enterprise: Competitive Automotive Regulatory System for the 21st Century
- CARS21: Report by High Level Group on the Competitiveness and Sustainable Growth of the Automotive Industry in the European Union
Business & industry
- ACEA: Press release: Long-term CO2 target must be ambitious and scientifically founded, not 'political' (23 April 2013)
NGOs & Think-tanks
- Transport & Environment: Cars and CO2 targets
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