The EU has a major interest in the reform process of its neighbours, writes Fraser Cameron, director of studies at the European Policy Centre (EPC), in the Turkish Policy Quarterly. However, the EU is not entitled to “impose” the ground rules of political, economic and social behavior that it requires from member countries upon its southern neighbors the way it is able to upon its European neighbors and potential member countries. The EU’s “sticks and carrots” are insufficient to motivate national authorities to implement reforms that weaken their own power status. This article considers the importance of the region for the EU, assesses the achievements of the Barcelona Process, evaluates present EU policies towards the region, ask s whether democracy is possible in the region and examines the prospects for EU-U.S. cooperation in the wider Middle East. The author suggests a number of recommendations for EU action although it is recognized that progress will depend on decisions made by the countries in the region themselves.